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Author(s) of the publication: Yaroslav Renkas

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President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin congratulated prominent compatriots honored with the State Award for 2006 in June 2007. Among them were Academician Sergey Kovalev, chief designer and supervisor of studies of design works for rocket strategic submarine cruisers and for creating offshore oil and gas production and reconnaissance platforms of the Central Design Bureau of Marine Equipment "Rubin", and Academician Igor Spassky, First Deputy Director General, chief designer of the same organization, as well as David Pashaev, President of the Russian State Center of Atomic Shipbuilding "Sevmash". They were honored with the high award for the design of three generations of atomic carrier rocket submarines.

This fact drew attention of representatives of mass media. Though even before the designers of battle submarines were much discussed in mass media. It would be fair to point out that Science in Russia magazine repeatedly covered problems of development and improvement of national submarines, published a lot of articles, in particular, the article of the Nobel prize-winner Academician Zhores Alferov, Academician Sergey Kovalev and Anatoly Rodionov, Dr. Sc. (Tech.)*, which contains an analysis of the results and perspectives of the activity of Leningrad Design Bureau No. 143 (today FSUE St. Petersburg Marine Bureau of Machine-Building "Malakhit"), Design Bureau of Machine-Building (Miass, Chelyabinsk Region), the Works named after the Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomolsk-on-Amur), CRI "Morphiz-pribor", "Elektropribor", "Prometei", Physico-Technical Institute named after A. Ioffe (St. Petersburg), CRI "Delphin", CRI named after Academician A. Krylov (Moscow).

* See: Zh. Alferov et at., "Main Strike Force of Russian Navy", Science in Russia, No. 1. 2006. -Ed.

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Special article was devoted to the MT CDB "Rubin"*. The point at issue was an age-old history of the development of national submarine fleet on the base of this research institution, where heavy strategic atomic submarine cruisers of the third generation - Akula - were designed. It is the largest submarine in the world, equipped with a rocket system consisting of 20 ballistic carriers with 10 splitting warheads (each with an individual guidance). The cruiser maintains controllability and launching submergence depth during a multiple discharge of a submerged weapon of up to 2,000 tons. The installed navigation system ensures accurate target destruction.

As for the recent, most efficient publications on the subject, we must point out Rossiiskaya Gazeta: on its pages the above-mentioned laureates discussed problems of designing, construction and use of atomic submarines. In particular, Sergey Kovalev emphasized that a high scientific level, technological achievements and a huge experience accumulated for the past years allow to

* See: Yu. Unkovsky, "Naval Jubilee", Science in Russia, No. 5, 2001. - Ed.

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increase battle effectiveness of our submarines carrier rockets. He specially pointed out their multiple noise reduction (by 30 times). This technological breakthrough was conditioned by theoretical research works of such prominent scientists as Anatoly Alexandrov and Viktor Gaponov-Grekhov, as well as by numerous tests of submarines in the sea. Concurrently, technology and equipment on shipyards and related enterprises have been gradually improved. Scientists have managed to formulate requirements for vibroactivity of equipment and mechanisms, installed on submarines in order to improve their reticence.

"Sevmash" shipwrights, headed by David Pashaev, who in the 1990s did not let the plant come under hammer, also participate in the general development. At that time many directors sold out equipment and leased workshops. He managed to preserve unique production facilities even without state-guaranteed orders. "We kept working even in the most difficult years," says David Pashaev.

At the beginning of the 21st century "Sevmash" put into operation "Gepard" carrier rocket, which exceeded expectations of the specialists. At the same time the efforts were undertaken to stabilize the Russian State Center of Atomic Shipbuilding, incorporating "Rubin" as well. Specialists of this plant managed to bring more than 50 percent of submarine components from Ukraine to Russian plants, as well as metal, primary navigation and computer systems. Now only cable is supplied from Ukraine, but already from the joint Russian-Ukrainian enterprise.

In short, the authors of the publication conclude that our shipwrights can successfully respond to problems which arise and will arise in the course of construction of submarines of the fourth and fifth generations. Igor Spassky believes that things never change. Complex scientific and technical systems develop gradually. At first one generation of machines is created based on the level of knowledge and opportunities existing in reality. Then, after accumulation of experience, specialists start designing new generations, etc. Submarines are a striking example of this evolution.

As for such a high appraisal of the work of submarine designers, in particular, their decoration with the State Prize, all participants of the discussion published in Rossiiskaya Gazeta agree that this fact proves a special interest of the RF President and Russian Government in the business they are engaged in for further strengthening the defence capacity of the country.

A. Yemelyanenkov, "Fourth Generation Underwater Strategists", Rossiiskaya gazeta, 15.06.2007

Prepared by Yaroslav Renkas



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