Y. P. PETROV. The Main Objectives of Research in the History of the Partisan Movement in the Years of the Great Patriotic War
The article examines a number of questions relating to research into the history of the struggle waged by the Soviet people on temporarily occupied Soviet territory during the second world war. The author notes that the victory of socialism in the U.S.S.R. and the new qualitative growth of Soviet society brought about the cohesion and solidarity o. he whole people unprecedented in the history of wars; the unbreakable unity and determination of the Soviet people to uphold their socialist gains laid their imprint on the character and scope of the partisan movement which rapidly spread all over the territorу of the USSR seized by Hitler troops. All classes and segments of Soviet society actively shared in this movement. For the first time in the history of wars the partisan movement was centralized and skilfully directed, which made it an important strategic factor m h war The author vividly shows how the partisan movement ,s highlighted "the works produced by Soviet historians. Much attention in this connection is given to the study оf the new contribution made to the theory and practice of partisan warfare by the Soviet people's struggle against the nazi aggressors, notably the interaction of the partisan for e with the Red Army, the military operations carried out on major railway junctions, h battles fought in the towns and other inhabited communities, the active part played by the population in thwarting the political, economic and military measures contemplated by the enemy.
A. Z. MANFRED. Soviet Historiography of the Paris Commune
The author examines the development of Soviet historiography of the Paris Commune of 1871 over the past half-century. The article opens with a terse characteristic оf V. I. Lenin's views on the Commune as the first experiment in the dictatorship of he proletariat and the highest-type proletarian democracy. Lenin's creative approach to the first proletarian revolution in mankind's history and his appraisal of its strong and weak sides made a determinative influence on the development of Soviet historical science. Tracing the progress of Soviet research into the history of the Paris Commune from the early works by N. M. Lukin, I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov and others to the latest fundamental collective work by Soviet historians published in 1971, the author brings out the most important distinguishing features of the Soviet historical school and defines its place in contemporary world historiography of the Paris Commune. In conclusion the author draws attention to a number of problems still awaiting scientific solution.
I. P. TSAMERYAN. The Embodiment of Lenin's Internationalist Ideas in the Soviet Multinational State
Summaries of Major Articles
The article graphically shows that the consistent implementation of the principles of proletarian internationalism in the building and development of the U.S.S.R. is the main source of the strength and viability of our country. Characterizing the most important distinctive features of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a multinational state of the new, socialist type, the author convincingly proves that it radically differs from bourgeois multinational states. Much attention is devoted in the article to the basic content of the principles of proletarian internationalism which form the underlying foundation-of the whole system of the Soviet multinational state: the factual equality of ail nations and nationalities; the voluntary union of free and sovereign Soviet republics into a single state; the sovereignty of all the constituent republics; democratic centralism as a form of combining national and international interests of the numerous Soviet nations and nationalities. The article also dwells on the problems of strengthening the Soviet multinational state, the prospects of development of the Soviet Federation and continued improvement 'of the forms of national statehood as an important condition for the successful progress of communist construction.
M. V. NECHKINA. V. O. Klyuchevsky in His Student Years
The article is devoted to the student years of V. O. Klyuchevsky, which constituted an important stage in the moulding of the scientist. It was precisely in those years that his basic scientific interests and his world outlook became clearly defined. The process of formation of V. O. Klyuchevsky is viewed by the author against the background of the socio-political developments of the early sixties of the 19th century; the author shows the (impact these developments had on V. O. Klyuchevsky as well as his attitude towards them.
L. N. IGNATYEV. Nuclear Weapons and U. S. Foreign Policy
The article examines one of the most important aspects of the activity of the American government in the sphere of foreign policy in the postwar period - the use of nuclear weapons as a new means of foreign-policy strategy which came to be called "atomic diplomacy." The author convincingly shows that owing to a number of reasons, first and foremost the underestimation by the United States of the might of the Soviet Union, the advantages of the socialist system and the achievements of Soviet science and technology, the possibilities of holding out the threat of employing nuclear weapons as an instrument bf psychologically influencing the U.S.S.R. proved very flimsy from the very outset. Furthermore, there appeared certain difficulties in the use of nuclear weapons as a means of U. S. foreign-policy strategy. However, this should not be taken to mean that the U.S.A. has completely renounced its nuclear strategy. In its foreign-policy activity, the author writes in conclusion, the Nixon Administration continues to put its stakes on America's nuclear-missile arsenal, attaching paramount significance to its further development and perfection.
G. F. ZASTAVENKO. Nazi Germany's War Economy in 1943 - 1944
The author analyzes the measures taken by the nazi authorities to centralize the war economy of fascist Germany in the period from the summer of 1943 to July 1944, when military production in Germany reached its culmination point. The leading monopoly tycoons established their control over the key military-economic bodies. Representatives of the biggest industrial concerns were vested with emergency powers. All this greatly
enhanced the domination of German monopolies in the economic and political life of the country. The article substantiates the conclusion that the superiority of the Soviet socialist system over the state-monopoly organization of nazi Germany determined the latter's defeat and the victory of the U.S.S.R.
N. K. KUCHEROV. The Struggle Waged by the Working People of Eastern Galicia for Soviet Power in 1918 - 1923
The article characterizes the heroic struggle waged by the working people of Eastern Galicia against social and national oppression, for Galicia's reunion with the Soviet Ukraine. The author shows 'how the powerful upsurge of the revolutionary liberation movement which developed under the impact of the Great October Socialist Revolution laid the groundwork for the merger, in February 1919, of the Communist circles and groups resulting in the formation of the Communist Party of Eastern Galicia (Communist Party of the Western Ukraine since 1923), which assumed the role of organizer and leader of the working people's struggle for their social and national emancipation, for the establishment of Soviet government on the territory of the Western Ukraine and for the latter's reunion with the Soviet Ukraine.
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