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By Vladimir REDKO, Dr. Sc. (Phys. & Math.), RAS Institute of Applied Mathematics (named after M. Keldysh) The process of the Earth's evolution has brought to life some really complicated and surprisingly effectively functioning living organisms. The functioning of their organs is coordinated by what we call biological management systems. What is the principle of their operation in the first place and could it be put to practical uses in our own interests, such as the development of artificial intelligence? What new technologies could appear on the basis of the "intellectual inventions" of Mother Nature? These and a host of other challenging questions are now on the agenda of evolutionary cybernetics-a new branch of science which is developing in this and other countries now. One of the most complicated problems facing the international scientific community today is the origin of human intelligence. Can we get a more clear picture of the development of the cognitive abilities of living organisms in the process of evolution of the biosphere? In dealing with this challenge we should obviously try and model the evolution of the cognitive properties of living organisms. And the best way to deal with this problem seems to be to begin from the beginning -the origin of life, tracing the whole biological evolution from the primitive organisms to humans, trying to identify the most important of the "inventions" of nature which had led to the development of the first "sprouts" of logic, thinking and intellect. At the next stage we have to try and trace the causes of such qualitative changes by building their mathematical models. But, to begin with, let us try to identify, and briefly describe, certain levels of "intellectual inventions". Level One-an organism can distinguish conditions of the environment and the memory thereof is recorded in the genome and is inherited. A living organism responds to environmental changes by altering its behavior. One such example can be ... Читать далее

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