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Y. L. DYAKOV. The Establishment of a New Coal-Mining and Metallurgical Centre in the North of the U.S.S.R.

The article traces the rise and development of the coal-mining and metallurgical complex in the North of the European part of the U.S.S.R., the establishment of which began in the prewar period, continued during the second world war and was completed in the postwar years. The author vividly describes the devoted labour effort of Soviet workers, engineers, technicians and geologists in developing the coal field on the Pechora River, the iron ore deposits on the Kola Peninsula and the construction of the giant iron and steel mills in Cherepovets.

N. P. KRASNIKOV. The Social Conception of Orthodoxy and Its Evolution

The author graphically shows that after the Great October Socialist Revolution the Russian Orthodox Church was compelled to take the path of modernizing its social views. The evolution of the social conception of Orthodoxy began at the end of the 1920's simultaneously with the political reorientation of the clergy. The association of the Russian Orthodox Church with the peace movement since 1948 and with the ecumenical movement since 1961 stimulated the process of modernizing its social conception. But despite this positive development, the pseudo-scientific and profoundly reactionary nature of its religious doctrine remained unchanged. That is why religious ideology and socialism are incompatible. The article comprehensively analyzes Soviet literature on the problem.

I. A. FEDOSOV. Enlightened Absolutism in Russia

The article is devoted to the history of the political superstructure in Russia from the second half of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th centuries. The author examines the following major problems: state development, social and economic policy of the autocracy in the given chronological period. The main theoretical problem of the article is elucidation of the social essence and historical significance of so-called enlightened absolutism, which is viewed as a special period in the evolution of the political superstructure of feudal society.

I. L. ANDREYEV. The Specific Features of Non-Capitalist Development of Peoples Which Have Not Consummated the Process of Class Formation

The article analyzes certain specific aspects of non-capitalist development of peoples which have not yet consummated the process of class formation and have preserved the commune as the basic socio-economic nucleus. Drawing on materials from the history of the former semi-colonial borderlands of our country and a number of countries of the

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contemporary Third World, the author shows that alongside the decisive role of foreign policy conditions attending the development of these peoples and the social nature of state power inside the country, certain peculiarities of non-capitalist development and primarily the "technique" of socio-economic transformations appear to be determined by the existence of the peasant commune. Belonging to these peculiarities are the specific features attending the formation of democratic organs of local self-government and state power, especially at village and rural community level, as well as the agricultural cooperation of members of the peasant commune.

The experience of the former backward peoples that inhabited the semi-colonial outlying areas of our country provides practical confirmation of the theoretical prevision of the classics of Marxism concerning the possibility for the peoples still retaining the commune of advancing to socialism along the road of non-capitalist development.

Y. N. KOROLEV. The Labour Movement and the Spread of Marxism in Chile (from revolutionary democracy to Marxism)

The article traces the sources of Marxist ideology in the Chilean labour movement and the first practical steps made by the working class of that country in the struggle for socialism.

By the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries the economic and other prerequisites for the emergence of socialist ideology matured in Chile and there began the complex process of combining socialist theory with the labour movement. On the socio-political plane this process was vividly reflected in the rise and development of the political party of the proletariat relying on Marxist theory and directly participating in the working-class movement. In Chile's history such an. organisation was, the Socialist Labour Party founded in 1912, which after ten years of tense political and ideological struggle was transformed into the Communist Party of Chile-the living embodiment of the fusion of Marxism with the working-class movement in the specific conditions of this country.

Orphus

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