Libmonster is the largest world open library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

share the publication with friends & colleagues

V. Z. DROBIZHEV and Y. S. KUKUSHKIN. The Role of Popular-Scientific Literature In the Propagation of Historical Knowledge

The authors analyze a number of popular-scientific works devoted to the history of Soviet society, which appeared after the Twentieth CPSU Congress. While showing the important achievements made in this field, the authors at the same time draw the readers' attention to certain shortcomings that have to be overcome. The principal task of every popular-scientific work is to disseminate the latest scientific achievements. However, a close analysis of a series of recent publications shows that side by side with well-written, and scientifically substantiated works our publishing houses are still putting out weak, superficial and stereotyped books. Quite a few publications of this type are called popular-scientific merely because they cannot be included in the category of scientific monographs.

In conclusion the authors dwell on certain organizational measures, the implementation of which could improve the entire work in the field of disseminating historical knowledge. It would be expedient, in their opinion, to coordinate the work of all publishing houses by drawing up a summarized plan for putting out popular-scientific literature, which would make it possible to avoid unnecessary duplication and concentrate the efforts of the best writers on major problems. It is also necessary to plan the development and extension of this type of literature in scientific-research institutes of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and in the country's higher educational establishments.

M. A. VYLTSAN. The Material Position of the Collective-Farm Peasantry in the Prewar Period

Drawing on new materials from the State Central Archive of the Soviet National Economy, the author of this article comprehensively examines the following two problems: the incomes derived by the collective farmers from the common enterprise and personal husbandry, and the consumption level of the collective-farm peasantry in 1933 - 1940.

The author shows how the growing volume of collective-farm output and the rising level of labour productivity enabled the collective-farm peasantry to derive ever higher incomes from the common enterprise. In the period under examination nearly 30 per cent of the total amount of grain harvested by the collective farms was distributed according to the number of workdays contributed by each peasant. The common enterprise almost fully satisfied the collective farmers' requirements in grain. Nevertheless, the collective farmers' personal husbandry continued to play an important part in their incomes. The data cited in the article on collective-farm family incomes show, for example, that most of the animal products were obtained by the collective farmers from their personal husbandry. This enables the author to draw the conclusion that the artel form of peasant cooperation, combining the common enterprise with personal husbandry, was a correct one and fully justified itself.

The radical changes in the peasants' material position, the author emphasizes, should be attributed to the advantages of the socialist economic system, the correct policy of the Communist Party and the devoted labour effort of the entire Soviet people.

L. V. CHEREPNIN. History in A. S. Pushkin's Creative Work

The author makes an attempt to analyze A. S. Pushkin's historical views by drawing on his critical notes, letters, diaries and other sources. The author shows that the great Russian poet and writer was well acquainted with major historical works of his time produced by Russian and foreign historians. He devoted much attention to ancient and West-European medieval history, to the Renaissance period, the French bourgeois revolution of the end of the 18th century and a number of other problems of world history. But his attention was always focussed on Russian history, for he was fully aware of its significance for fostering in man the feeling of national consciousness and national pride. Analyzing the process of world history, A. S. Pushkin was able to derive from it important lessons of social and political struggle.

стр. 220

A. S. Pushkin believed, writes L. V. Cherepnin, in the possibility of applying different methods of historical research and singled out several types of historical works. The most simple type presents a purely factual exposition of past events in their chronological sequence. Other types include historical narration in the form of annals, re-creation of the past by a critical analysis of historical sources, and philosophical interpretation of the historical process.

The article points out that the writer devoted his attention to such important problems as the objective laws governing the process of social development and the role of chance phenomena in history, the interrelation between national and universal history, the elements of similarity and distinction in the history of Russia and West-European countries, the Russian people's contribution to human progress, etc.

Side by side with annalistic, chritical and philosophic history, the author points out, A. S. Pushkin attached serious importance to artistic portrayal of history. In the difficult conditions of autocracy and serfdom A. S. Pushkin was able not only to paint vivid and true-to-life portraits of such outstanding personalities as Peter the Great, but also to show the historical role of the popular masses. A. S. Pushkin's creative work, the author stresses, clearly shows that he was prompted to take up many important historical themes by contemporaneity. The writer also displayed considerable interest in diverse aspects of source research and archeology. A. S. Pushkin's methods of criticizing historical sources are distinguished for their variety and subtlety. The writer's superb knowledge of the Russian language and brilliant understanding of its historical development enabled him to make the best possible use of its wealth in works devoted to various historical periods. In his portrayal of historical characters and events A. S. Pushkin also drew extensively on historical monuments of painting, sculpture and architecture.

I. S. KON. Neo-Positivism and the Logic of Historical Science

The article is devoted to an analysis of the latest conceptions concerning the logic of historical interpretation, which, in the author's opinion, are coming to play an everincreasing role in contemporary philosophy of history.

Bourgeois philosophy of the second half of the 19th century was dominated by two basic trends in relation to history. The positivism of Comte-Spencer-Mill, developing in polemic with the traditions of romantic historiography, emphasized the unity of scientific knowledge and the possibility of evolving a harmonious social science. However, it ignored the specific features of historical cognition and, to all intents and purposes, dissolved history in abstract sociology. On the other hand, the openly idealistic trends which became particularly widespread in the early part of this century accentuated the specific features of historical cognition but gave an erroneous interpretation of these peculiarities, thus opposing history to objective scientific knowledge. The exponents of the presentday philosophy of logical analysis are endeavouring to explain the specific character of historical cognition from a new angle by analyzing the logic of historical interpretation.

While not disputing the rightfulness of this aspect of research the author nevertheless considers it an error typical of the neo-positivist trend to examine the logic of science in divorcement from gnosiological and ontological problems. The logic of historical interpretation depends both on the subject of research and on the historian's philosophical views. That explains why the controversy over the logic of historical interpretation often enough merely brings us back to old philosophical discussions.

Making a comprehensive analysis of the "covering law" theory advanced by K. R. Popper and C. Hempel, I. S. Kon criticizes its phenomenalism and subjective interpretation of the laws governing the process of historical development. Popper, Hempel and their followers operate not with genuine scientific laws but merely with empirical generalizations and even common truisms. Quite flimsy and unjustified, in the author's opinion, is the very idea of deducing an individual historical phenomenon from a certain universal law.

The manifest weakness and inadequacy of Popper-Hempel's scheme impels other representatives of logical analysis to depart from it. This tendency can already be discerned in the works of P. Gardiner, while W. Walsh, A. Donagan, A. C. Danto, W Dray and M. Scriven have gone still further in the same direction. But, I. S. Kon points out, this process is accompanied by the establishment of closer ties between neo-positivism and other idealistic schools. Thus W. Dray, while remaining within the bounds of positivism's traditional logical concepts, is actually drawing closer to the viewpoint of the old neo-Kantian idiographism and R. G. Collingwood's "understanding." Criticizing these views, the author sees in them a tendency to substitute scientific interpretation of history by a mere description and attributes them to the influence of philosophical idealism.

The forms of historical interpretation are many and varied. The article briefly examines interpretation through motive, interpretation by analogy, functional interpretation, genetic interpretation and interpretation based on law. However, these forms of interpretation, in the author's opinion, widely differ in scientific value and importance and cannot be applied to all objects.

стр. 221

N. I. LEBEDEV. Imperialist Aggression Against Egypt in 1956

The author of this article examines the policy of the Soviet Union and the United States in the period of imperialist aggression against Egypt. Bourgeois historiography grossly falsifies history by alleging that it was not the U.S.S.R. and the world socialist system but the U.S.A. that played a decisive role in curbing the Anglo-Franco- Israeli aggression against Egypt in 1956.

The article convincingly shows that the U.S. government actually helped to precipitate the Suez crisis and unleash the Anglo-Franco-Israeli aggression against Egypt in 1956, thereby hoping to achieve two basic aims: to suppress the national-liberation movement of the colonial peoples and weaken British and French positions in the Middle East with a view to establishing American imperialist domination in this part of the world. The United States set the tone of imperialist policy towards Egypt following the latter's nationalization of the Suez Canal Company; the differences which arose between American and Anglo-French monopolies over the employment of armed force with the aim of re-establishing imperialist domination over the Suez Canal directly resulted from imperialist contradictions between these countries and from a number of other factors. The article points out that America's position in the period of imperialist aggression against Egypt was largely influenced by the internal political struggle on the eve of the Presidential elections, the desire to safeguard "Atlantic solidarity" and the resolute struggle of the U.S.S.R. and other socialist countries in defence of Egypt's freedom and independence.

The Soviet Union was not guided by any selfish motives in upholding the sovereign rights of the Egyptian people. It took a resolute stand against the Anglo-Franco-Israeli aggression and expressed its readiness to render armed assistance to Egypt as the victim of aggression. The Soviet note of November 5, 1956, which clearly and unequivocally expressed the Soviet Union's position, played the decisive role in curbing the imperialist aggression against Egypt. The fundamental change in the balance of world forces in favour of socialism by the time of the Suez crisis was another cardinal factor in putting an end to the aggressive war against Egypt.

R. WUNSCHE. The German Monopolies' Penetration into China During the Sino-Japanese Conflict (1931 - 1933)

In their attempts to enhance their political and economic influence in Afro-Asian and Latin-American countries, the West-German imperialists deny that Germany's policy in the past was based on aggressive aims. Exposing the neo-colonialist demagogy of West-German monopolists, the author of this article comprehensively analyzes German imperialism's expansionist policy in China in the early thirties by drawing on hitherto unpublished materials and documents from the German Central Archive in Potsdam and the Central Archive in Merseburg.

The author emphatically stresses that monopoly influence was a decisive factor in the shaping of Germany's foreign policy. The Japanese aggression in China enabled the German monopolies to take advantage of the aggravation of Sino-Japanese relations and the intensification of imperialist contradictions in the Far East, particularly between Japan, on the one hand, and the U.S.A., Britain and France, on the other, to further their own interests. In the early 1930's the German monopolies pursued an active colonialist policy. Holding much weaker positions in China than the other imperialist powers and alleging that she was guided by unselfish motives, Germany was actively penetrating into China's economy and strengthening her positions there to the detriment of Japanese, British and United States interests. The author exposes the utter falsity of the thesis of Germany's "neutrality" in the period of Japan's aggression in China and traces the causes that prompted Germany to alter her position towards the aggressor in the League of Nations. The author comes to the conclusion that the German delegates often made common cause with their Japanese colleagues.

It is generally known that the German monopolies always played an important part in supplying armaments to the Far East. The article cites convincing material testifying that the German death merchants stepped up their activity in the period of the Japanese aggression in China, abundantly supplying Japan with weapons and other war materiel. German imperialism was factually an ally and accomplice of the Japanese aggressor. An important factor that largely influenced the policy of imperialist Germany in those years was the hope entertained by the reactionary circles of Germany and other countries that Japanese aggression could be directed against the Soviet Union. The foreign policy of imperialist Germany in the period of the Japanese aggression in China reflected the German monopolies' growing activity in furthering their colonialist policy.

Orphus

© libmonster.com

Permanent link to this publication:

http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-12-03-11

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Libmonster OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: http://libmonster.com/Libmonster

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 03.12.2017. URL: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-12-03-11 (date of access: 18.10.2019).

Found source (search robot):



Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Publisher
Libmonster Online
New-York, United States
227 views rating
03.12.2017 (684 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes

Keywords
Related Articles
In macroscopic reality, gravity is determined by mass. In microscopic reality, where the particle mass is practically zero, the rotational form of gravity acts. The rotational form of gravity is formed by means of rotating microparticles, which spin gravitational spheres around themselves, which, as in a whirlpool, attract microparticles to each other.
Catalog: Physics 
4 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
The paper covers a model of generation of fundamental forces induced by neutrino interference with other particles. Neutrinos fill up vacuum and inter-vacuum space obtaining a long-range action. Fundamental binding “proton-neutrinoselectron” has been defined and its transformation under various conditions into atom of hydrogen or neutron is studied. The paper also considers structuring of nucleus and electron atomic shell. Electron is positioned on stationary shell creating intraatomic and interatomic forces. Fundamental forces are generated due to neutrinos interference of neutron, nucleon and atom. Proposed the impact of neutrinos on origin of gravitation.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
Interrelation between gravitation and acts of nature is deemed as a hard proof that the Earth gravitation is a predominant fact in this cohesion. Neutrino flow pressuring towards the Earth center on its way is forming difference abnormal zones within atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. As a result we are exposed to such natural disasters as earthquakes, volcanoes and climatic changes. Sufficient energy to such acts may be released only due to gravitation.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
Neutrino is considered the carrier of gravitation. Earth gravity is formed due to the central Earth core shielding all-penetrating neutrino flow. Neutrino penetrates the Earth interfering fusion reaction on the core surface of our planet and stops motion and pressuring. As consequence neutrino is facing gravity force forwarded to the center of our planet.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
A new theory of electricity is needed, first of all, because the modern theory of electricity is built on a conduction current that does not exist in nature. And this paradox is obvious even to schoolchildren who observe currents with negative and positive charges on oscilloscopes. The modern theory of electricity is not able to clearly explain many of the mysteries of electricity. This article explains some of the mysteries that the modern theory of electricity could not explain.
Catalog: Physics 
71 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
The author of the article did not encounter a single source on the Meissner-Oxenfeld effect, where the version that this effect is explained by the presence of eddy currents in superconducting ceramics would be questioned. But, in the opinion of the author of the article, ceramics in such a state are surrounded by such gravitational fields, which, when cooled, turn into gravimagnetic fields, which, together with the gravimagnetic fields of the Earth, pull all the magnetic fields from the ceramics body.
Catalog: Physics 
93 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Two hundred years ago, Faraday received a current with negative and positive charges, which is distributed in the layer of ether adjacent to the conductor. The one who does not know this is not worth going into the theory of electricity. The discovery is based on the realization that in the theory of electricity there is no extraneous force, instead of which an electromotive force acts, formed by the difference in electrical potentials, between the zero potential of the conductor and the negative (or positive) potential of the current source. This difference in electrical potentials creates in the circuit the force of motion of the charges. The difference of electric potentials creates a force, which may well be called Coulomb force. And then it is not clear why it was necessary to invent an outside force.
Catalog: Physics 
162 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
According to our hypothesis, the conversion of electrons and positrons into each other occurs by replacing the charge motion vector with the opposite vector. This is explained by the fact that all elements of the electron's magnetoelectric system are opposite to all elements of the positron's magnetoelectric system. And this opposite is determined by the vector of their movement in space. Therefore, it is only necessary to change the motion vector of one of the charges to the opposite vector, so immediately this charge turns into its antipode.
Catalog: Physics 
215 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
ПОДВИГ В ХОДЕ ЭВАКУАЦИИ
Catalog: Military science 
229 days ago · From Libmonster Online
The article gives my short life story with a list of my discoveries. May the terrible moralists forgive me, I call these hypotheses discoveries because their logical connectedness and conformity with the materialistic dialectic of thinking does not allow to doubt that truth has been found here.
Catalog: Philosophy 
229 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov

ONE WORLD -ONE LIBRARY
Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.


Click here to create your own personal collection
SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES
 

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Libmonster ® All rights reserved.
2014-2019, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)


LIBMONSTER - INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK