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M.I. KULICHENKO. The Development of Nations and National Relations in the U.S.S.R. at the Present Stage

The article characterizes the changes that occurred in the life of the Soviet nations and nationalities in the period between the 23rd and 24th Congresses of the CPSU. The author shows the vast significance of the consistent implementation of the Leninist national policy by the Party for strengthening the unity of Soviet society. Socialism, the article says, ensured the flourishing of all nations and nationalities, their all-round rapprochement and the emergence of the Soviet people as a new historical community of men. The joint efforts of all Soviet nations and nationalities, national and ethnic groups have brought about an unprecedented development of a single socialist economy and ensured a swift progress of Soviet culture which is multinational in form and socialist in content; the process of evening up the economic development levels and social structure of all Soviet nations and nationalities is under way; the profound internationalism intrinsic to the consciousness of working people of all nationalities, the common traits of their character and moral principles, the traditions common to all Soviet peoples are increasingly asserting themselves.

V.I. KORETSKY. V.N. Tatishchev's Work on Historical Sources Relating to the Process of the Peasants' Enslavement

The article examines the development of V.N. Tatishchev's views on the process of the peasants' enslavement in Russia in the 16fh-17th centuries, as well as the methods of his work on historical sources on the example of preserved juridical records and annals relating to this problem. The author draws the conclusion that apart from such important ancient Russian legislative documents as the Code of Law of 1550, the laws of 1597 and of 1601, the Council Code of March 9, 1607, V.N. Tatishchev had at his disposal the now iost chronicle of a monk named Joseph, lay-brother Patriarch Job, initiated into many important political secrets, which exerted a strong influence on the formation of the historian's views on the process of enslavement of the Russian peasantry.

H. LOWMIANSKL The Rus and the Rugi

The article evaluates the fact of confusing the names of "Rus" and "Rugi" in medieval historical literature. The author arrives at the conclusion that there existed only one Rus with the centre in Kiev, though now and again some of the historical sources erroneously referred to it as "Rugia". On the other hand, in a number of cases we come across references in which "Rugia" (Riigen Island) was used instead of "Rus" by mistake. This confusion of names undoubtedly influenced the appearance of a Varangian legend included in the "Tales of Temporal Years" and, possibly, had its impact on Arabian historical and geographical literature. The actual reason for confusing Rus and Rugia should be sought in the phonetic similarity marking the pronunciation of these two words, as well as in the fact that beginning with the 7th century the Slavs inhabited Rugen Island along with areas adjacent to the Dnieper. The mistake originated within the bounds of Kiev Rus, though not in Slavonic but in Norman environment.

V.N. KHANZHENKOV. Australian-American Relations in the Period of the Second World War

The article traces the evolution of relations between Australia and the U.S.A. in the years of the second world war in connection with the development of the military-strategic situation on the Pacific theatre of hostilities. The author devotes considerable attention to an analysis of factors which compelled the ruling circles of Australia to

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make a sharp turn towards weakening their traditional ties with Britain in favour of closer relations with the U.S.A. The author stresses the significance of the collapse of the British system of defences in the Far East, the surrender of Singapore and Japan's impetuous advance to the shores of Australia. The article also examines the plans of American imperialism to establish its control over Australia and other parts of the British Empire in the Pacific area, as well as the imperialist contradictions which emerged between Australia and the United States during the war.

N.N. BOLKHOVITINOV. Russian America and the Proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine

Drawing on a number of new documents from Soviet and American archives, the author traces the history of the contradictions between the U.S.A., Britain and tsarist Russia in the northwest of America. The author graphically shows that it was the United States that most actively pursued the expansionist policy in this area from the beginning of the 1820's, which found expression in its claims to special rights on the American continents and the enunciation of the principle prohibiting future colonization of America by any European power. Although formally the proclamation of the "non-colonization principle" was associated with Russian-American relations, it was this principle, and the whole Monroe Doctrine for that matter, that was factually and chiefly directed against Great Britain as the principal rival of the United States in the struggle for influence in the Western Hemisphere.

A.I. POLTORAK. and N.S. LEBEDEVA. The 25th Anniversary of the Nuremberg Trial

The authors have set themselves the aim to prove that the basic ideas of the trial of the major nazi war criminals by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1946 have lost none of their significance in our time. Analyzing the Nuremberg documents as well as the materials of certain other trials of nazi war criminals, the authors graphically show that the Nuremberg International Tribunal of 1946 was not merely judicium ad hoc but the new historical type of trial which played a prominent part in the development of progressive international law. The Nuremberg materials and documents are distinguished for their clearly pronounced anti-fascist, anti-militarist and anti- monopoly character. Furthermore, they constitute an important source on the pre-history and actual history of World War II. The authors draw the conclusion that to this day the legal standards of the Nuremberg Tribunal continue to serve the cause of progress and the struggle for peace in all parts of the world.

Orphus

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