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R. M. SAVITSKAYA: The Elaboration of a Scientific Biography of V. I. Lenin

The author makes an attempt to characterize the principal publications containing V. I. Lenin's biography, tracing the main stages of this work beginning with the earliest mention of Lenin's name in prerevolutionary editions and ending with books specially published to mark the centenary of Lenin's birth. Much attention is devoted in the article to the first biography of Lenin written by Nadezhda Krupskaya in 1917 and to biographical essays on Lenin's life and work produced in subsequent years by his associates and contemporaries, prominent Party and government leaders and Soviet historians.

The author highlights the extensive work carried out by the CPSU Central Committee's Institute of Marxism-Leninism in studying Lenin's biography and in publishing new and revised editions of scientific and popular biographies of Lenin in 1942, 1955 and 1960. Summing up the results of this work, the author graphically shows that this is a process which continues to this day owing to the systematic discovery of new documents and factual materials. At the present time the publication of a detailed chronological edition of Lenin's biography is under way; the first volume of this fundamental work has already been put out.

L. E. KERTMAN, K. I. LARKINA, P. Y. RAHSHMIR and N. F. USHKEVICH. Research in the Problems of Modern and Contemporary History in 1966 - 1970

Reviewing the major research works in modern and contemporary history produced by Soviet historians during the past five-year period, the authors single out for detailed analysis the most important tendencies which largely contributed to the signal achievements registered in this sphere of historical knowledge. They discern the main tendency in the urge towards historical synthesis, which found especially vivid manifestation in a number of collective works devoted to contemporary history. Side by side with generalizations distinguished for their diachronic character, recent years were marked by heightened interest in the synchronous study of history on a global and regional scale. At the same time the appearance of individual and collective works embracing the history of one or another country from the earliest times to our days contributed to the elaboration of an integral Marxist-Leninist conception of the history of these countries.

Noting the development of the various genres of historical research (particularly, the biographical genre), the authors of the survey propose to start preparations for the compilation of generalizing works devoted to the history of the international working class and to the development of spiritual culture, as well as comprehensive research works devoted to the methodology of history and the most topical problems of modern and contemporary history.

D. I. GUSEV. Cultural Development of the Peoples Inhabiting the Volga and the Kama Country in the Period of Communist Construction

The article examines the process of further development of Soviet national cultures of the peoples inhabiting the Volga and the Kama Country the Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Maris, Mordvinians, Udmurts and Komi-Permyaks - in the period of communist construction. Drawing on archive and literary materials, statistical data and periodical press publications, the author highlights the new upsurge of cultura and educational work, the rapid progress of public education, the activity of higher schools and scientific research institutions, the flowering of literature and art manifested during the past ten years by the multinational population inhabiting the extensive territory stretching along the banks of the Volga. A close study of contemporary cultural development enables one to record both quantitative and qualitative transformations reflected, among other things, in the intensified process of the mutual cultural enrichment of the above mentioned nationalities in recent years. The article emphasizes the decisive role played by the Communist Party in cultural development.

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D. O. AITMAMBETOV. The Influence Exerted by Russia on Kirghizia's Economic and Cultural Development

The article traces the influence exerted on the development of the Kirghiz people by Kirghizia's reunion with Russia in the second half of the 19th century. The author makes a point of stressing that the penetration of capital into Kirghizia resulted in far- reaching changes in the economy, culture and everyday life of the Kirghiz people. The article cites a number of newly discovered materials illustrating Russia's influence of the economy of the local population (extension and improvement of fieldcrop cultivation, the development of bee-keeping, fruit-, vegetable- and vinegrowing, raising pedigree cattle, building motor roads, the appearance of communication facilities in the shape of the post, telegraph and telephone service). In the sphere of cultural life this influence on the local population was reflected in the emergence of the first medical institutions and secular schools. The reactionary, antinational policy pursued by the tsarist government at the turn of this century was powerless to prevent the growing rapprochement of the labouring sections of Russian and Ukrainian resettlers with the local population.

V. T. PASHUTO. The History of Russia as Depicted in West-German Textbooks

The Potsdam Agreement says that education in Germany must be so controlled as fully to remove the nazi and militarist doctrines and render possible the successful development of democratic ideas. Yet, as is shown in the article, the Ostkundlers - those theoreticians of militant pedagogics who express the views of the Refugee Union and regional organizations - are essentially engaged in psychologically preparing the youth for another aggressive war, drawing on the conclusions of the Ostforschung ("Eastern research" in universities). The Ostkunde ("Study of the East" in secondary schools) follows in the wake of the Ostforschung, continuously perfecting the methods of propagating its anticommunist ideas. West-German textbooks and school aids are based on the writings of Stadmuller, Lemberg, Lemann and other Ostkundlers who are closely associated with the Refugee Union and are seeking to make its revanchist ideas the underlying foundation of school education and upbringing. The author draws the conclusion that Soviet historians must devote very serious attention both to the Ostforschung and the Ostkunde.

A. B. DAVIDSON. At the Sources of Soviet Research in the History of Africa (the 80th Anniversary of the Birth of Endre Sik)

The article traces the origin of Soviet research in the history of Africa, which is inseparably bound up with the activity of Endre Sik - the prominent Hungarian scientist, diplomat and public leader who lived in Soviet Russia until 1945 and was one of the first Soviet Africanologists. The author believes that the chief merit of the trail blazers in Soviet Africanology lies in the fact that they were the first in world science to regard the African peoples as subjects of the historical process. In their works they proceeded from the premise that these peoples must play an active role in the revolutionary processes transforming the world, and tried to understand the significance of this role. In the process of their research work they confronted world Africanology with a number of entirely new problems.

V. S. GOLUBKOV. Norway's Postwar Foreign Policy as Reflected in Norwegian Official Historiography

The article subjects to a detailed analysis a number of works produced by Norwegian historians during the past few years, which reflect the official foreign policy conception. The author examines the official interpretation of such phenomena in Norway's foreign policy as revision of the policy of neutrality, the so - called "bridge- building" period, Norway's entry into the North Atlantic bloc and the consequences of this step, cooperation of the Scandinavian countries and the "Northern equilibrium theory." The article graphically shows the influence exerted by monopoly capital on the shaping of Norway's foreign policy.

Orphus

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