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A. O. CHUBARYAN. Soviet Historical Science Since the 23rd CPSU Congress

The article briefly sums up certain results of the activity of Soviet historians over the past five years. The author highlights the main trends of research carried on by our historians, showing how its progress was influenced by such momentous events as the Fiftieth Anniversary of Soviet power, the 1969 International Conference of Communist and Workers' Parties in Moscow and the centenary of the birth of V. I. Lenin. The article also characterizes the attitude of Soviet scientists to a number of problems discussed at the Thirteenth World Congress of Historical Sciences held in Moscow in 1970. That the five-year period 1966 - 1970 was especially fruitful from the viewpoint of research in the history of Soviet society is graphically illustrated by the numerous scientific publications which appeared during these years. Significant progress was also registered in studying the prerevolutionary history of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. Intensive research was conducted in major problems of universal history, archeology and ethnography. Most of the research works produced by Soviet historians during that period testify to the higher ideological level, deeper theoretical knowledge and more advanced professional skill of their authors. Drawing on his analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that in the five-year period just ended the range of historical research was substantially extended, the forms and methods of scientific investigations were improved, Soviet historical science was further strengthened organizationally. In the period under review Soviet historians successfully represented our science abroad and fruitfully cooperated with their colleagues in the fraternal socialist countries.

S. N. SEMANOV. Liquidation of the 1921 Anti-Soviet Mutiny in Kronstadt

The author points out that the 1921 mutiny in Kronstadt broke out in a very complicated situation for the young Soviet state when, after the hardships and privations of the civil war, the petty bourgeoisie manifested political vacillation and wavering. The Kronstadt mutiny was a graphic reflection of this petty-bourgeois wavering. Despite the fact that its organizers and leaders emphatically stressed their non-partisanship, the article convincingly shows that actually the mutiny had a clearly expressed anti-Soviet character. This is graphically confirmed by the attitude of Whiteguard emigres towards the mutiny. The counter-revolutionary elements abroad promptly established secret contacts with the leaders of the mutiny. In conclusion the author gives a detailed description of the careful preparations made by the Red Army for carrying out a swift military operation as a. result of which the Red Flag was again hoisted over Kronstadt.

E. I. SPIVAKOVSKY. Certain Historical Problems Attending the Formation of the Rumanian Communist Party

The article sheds light on the struggle waged by the Left wing of the Rumanian Social-Democratic (subsequently Socialist) Party against opportunist ideology and policies in the period preceding the formation of the Communist Party. Particular attention is devoted by the author to the powerful influence exerted by Lenin's ideas and the experience of the Great October Socialist Revolution on the working-class and socialist movement in Rumania.

The author points out that the struggle for the adoption of a new revolutionary programme by the Socialist Party, the formation of Communist groups, the founding of the Communist press, the dissemination of Lenin's ideas, the condemnation of opportunism and the transition of many local party organizations to revolutionary positions, the insistent demand for the establishment of the Communist Party and for its affiliation with the Third International encountered the stubborn resistance of the Right-wing opportunists and the Centrists, who refused to submit to the will of the majority. The author draws

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the conclusion that the founding of the Rumanian Communist Party in May 1921 signified a major victory for the Rumanian labour movement in the struggle for social emancipation.

V. V. CHISTYAKOV. Rosa Luxemburg and the International Working- CIass Movement (in commemoration of the birth centenary

The opening part of the article is devoted to the characteristic given by Marxist and bourgeois historiography of Rosa Luxemburg's activity in the international working- class movement. The author makes a detailed analysis of Rosa Luxemburg's views on the proletariat, highlighting her significant achievements in this sphere and, at the same time, disclosing her mistakes and their causes. The article sheds light on V. I. Lenin's attitude to Rosa Luxemburg's theoretical works and revolutionary activity. In conclusion the author traces the gradual evolution of Rosa Luxemburg's views towards Leninism, especially since the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

V. V. SAMARKIN. Dolcino's Uprising and Contemporary Italian Historiography

The article reviews the works produced by R. Morghen, E. Dupre-Theseider, C. Q. Mor, G. Miccoli and other Italian historians in the past fifteen years. Overtly or covertly, all these authors set out to refute the Marxist conception of medieval heresies, notably the heresy of Apostolic Brethren and Dolcino's uprising. In his controversy with Italian historians the author subjects to criticism their views on the following questions: the social composition of the Apostolic movement, the appraisal of this movement as a purely religious phenomenon having no social and economic roots, the evolution of Dolcino's theoretical views in the course of the uprising, Dolcino of Novara as a personality. The article shows the fundamentally different approach to, and interpretation of, these problems by Marxist and bourgeois historiography.

M. A. ZABOROV. The Experience of the Paris Commune and the Struggle of the Communist Parties in the Capitalist Countries for Democracy and Socialism in Present-Day Conditions

The author highlights the significance of the historical experience of the world's first proletarian revolution for the activity of the Communist and Workers' parties in present-day conditions. Drawing primarily on the works of French Marxists, he shows how in their fight for democracy and "socialism the Communists turn to the history of the Paris Commune in order to explain to the masses the essence of the proletarian state as a state of the new type and to expose the anti-popular character of bourgeois democracy. A close analysis of the experience of the Paris Commune permits to show the utter insolvency of the attempts made by the authors of diverse social-reformist and revisionist conceptions to distort the essence of the Paris Commune with a view to discrediting the teaching on the socialist revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. The author arrives at the conclusion that the experience of the Commune of 1871 has lost none of its significance and urgency for the Communist parties now upholding the fundamental interests of the working masses.

Orphus

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