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G. V. KRASNIKOVSKY. Socialist Planning in the USSR (50th Anniversary of the State Planning Committee of the USSR.

The article traces the history of socialist planning in the USSR, starting with the laying of the foundations of planning in the first years of Soviet power and the drawing up of plans for individual enterprises up to the present stage of scientifically based planning and elaboration of comprehensive plans of development of the entire economy. The author describes the role played by V. I. Lenin in the working out of the scientific basis and principles of socialist planning and in the creation of a unified system of planning bodies. He shows how the Communist Party and Soviet Government constantly directed the implementation of Lenin's ideas and principles at all stages of socialist construction in the USSR. The article also shows the importance of GOELRO, the plan worked out in 1920 on Lenin's initiative and under his guidance, contains the main data on the results of the fulfilment of the Five-Year plans from 1928 to 1970.

M. S. DZHUNUSOV. Lenin's Theory of the National Question and Present Time.

The article describes Lenin's concept of the origin and role of a nation in social development. The author reveals a nation's links with various aspects of social life (national interest, will of the nation, national pride), suggests criteria for studying the role and importance of the national- liberation movement in solving the main contradiction of our epoch. In the closing part of the article the author traces the connection between nationalism and opportunism.

V. A. EREMINA. V. I. Lenin as Historian of the Paris Commune.

The article examines Lenin's method of study of the history of Paris Commune and shows the main stages in his work on this subject. The revolution of March 18, 1871 is examined by the author in the light of the world revolutionary process. The article analyses Lenin's tenets regarding the role of the Paris Commune in the completion of the historical cycle of the development of bourgeois-democratic revolutions in the West. The author also examines Lenin's pronouncements on the historic place of the Paris Commune as the first proletarian revolution which ushered in a new, socialist cycle in the world revolutionary process. The article also discusses the question of Lenin's study of the influence of the Paris Commune on the development of the world revolutionary process.

E. D. LEBEDKINA. International Scientific Contacts of Soviet Scientists (1917 - 1924).

International scientific contacts in the early years of Soviet power developed along the following lines: trips of Soviet scientists to various countries for familiarising themselves with scientific institutions there and to deliver lectures, visits of foreign scientists to our country, participation of Soviet scientists in international congresses, conferences and symposiums, exchange of scientific literature and purchase of equipment abroad.

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participation in the activities of international scientific organisations. The author shows the great importance Lenin, the Communist Party and Soviet Goverment attached to promoting international scientific contacts.

As a result, already in the first years of Soviet power the foundation was laid for international scientific cooperation based on entirely new principles. A big role in the establishment of this cooperation was played by the Soviet Academy of Sciences.

S. P. MORDOVINA. The Nature of Nobility's Representation at the Zemski Sobor of 1598.

The article analyses the composition of the nobility's representation at the Zemski Sobor of 1598. The list of the Sobor's participants is compared with the chronologically close lists of the members of the Tsar's court (the lists of Boyars). The author comes to the conclusion that the military class, who constituted the majority at the Sobor, belonged mainly to the most privileged part of the Moscow nobility and that at the Sobor there were no elected representatives of the provincial nobility. A study of the composition of the military class at the Zemski Sobor of 1598 gives no grounds for considering that it was the most developed class-representative body of the 16th century.

A. A. STROKOV. Military Problems in the Works of F. Engels.

The article is devoted to the major tenets of the theoretical-military heritage of F. Engels, one of the founders of scientific Communism: to the theory of war and the army, the development of armed forces and military art, the laws governing the dependence of the course and outcome of war, of military art and all military matters on the level of production, socio-economic, political and moral factors, on the type of the army and on the material and technical basis of war. The author shows the intricate and multiform interdependence of the objective and the subjective in military matters. In conclusion he cites Engels's propositions summarising the experience of the proletariat's armed uprising.

V. A. ALEXEYEV. US Military Policy in Italy in 1943.

On September 3, 1943, a truce was concluded between Italy and the British and U. S. Command. It was also agreed that the announcement of the beginning of the truce would be made within a few days after it had been concluded and that simultaneously Allied troops would be landed in several places, including the vicinity of Rome. But at the last moment D. Eisenhower cancelled the landing operation near Rome. This had tragic consequences for the Italian capital and for the whole country. The documents and memoirs now published in the West show that the Hitler Command intended, in case of an Allied landing near Rome, to order its troops to retreat to the North of Italy. On other words, by the joint efforts of U. S. paratroopers, Italian troops and armed population the nazi occupation of Rome and Central Italy could have been prevented.

I. Ya. ZLATKIN. A. Toynbee on the Historical Past and the Present of Nomadic Peoples.

The article analyses and criticises the source material, methodology and conception of history of the nomadic peoples of Eurasia and Africa by the English historian and sociologist, Arnold Toynbee, and his ideas on the present situation and near future of these peoples. Using indisputable historical facts the author disproves Toynbee's concept based on the obviously obsolete data obtained by R. Pompelli's expedition which in 1904 - 1905 carried out excavation work near Ashkhabad during some 8 - 9 weeks, and on E. Hantingtone's climatological theory which has been rejected by modern geographical science.

Orphus

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