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P. S. NEPOROZHNY. The Basic Principles of the State Plan for the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO) and the Development of the Soviet Power Industry (the 50th Anniversary of the GOELRO Plan)

Written by the U.S.S.R. Minister of the Power Industry and Electrification, the article examines the basic principles of the QOELRO plan formulated by V. I. Lenin and the Soviet Communist Party, highlighting the 50-year progress of the national power industry and the prospects of its development in the near future.

B. M. YAKOVLEV. V. I. Lenin and the Problems of State Capitalism in Soviet Russia

The article sheds light on a number of problems connected with the elaboration by V. I. Lenin of the idea of utilizing state capitalism in the process of socialist construction in Soviet Russia and his efforts to carry this idea into practical effect. The author graphically shows how Lenin explained the essence of the policy of utilizing state capitalism, the prominent part played by Lenin in guiding the work of concluding agreements and contracts with businessmen and employers, the attention devoted by Lenin to these questions in the Council of People's Commissars and other state bodies, as well as his efforts to create favourable conditions for the fulfilment of adopted decisions.

The facts cited in the article warrant the conclusion that although state capitalism did not play the role it had been assigned in the transition period, it would nevertheless be wrong to underestimate the practice of its utilization in the early years of Soviet government. The experience of utilizing state capitalism in Soviet Russia facilitates its application in those countries which are now setting foot on the path of non-capitalist development. That is why the idea of utilizing state capitalism, formulated and substantiated by Lenin, fully retains its significance in our days.

LEO STERN. V. I. Lenin and the Struggle Between Two Class Tendencies in German History

The article graphically shows that in the process of his study of Germany's history Lenin always disclosed the two conflicting class tendencies in it: the reactionary line of the exploiting class vitally interested in retaining its privileges, and the revolutionary line of the popular masses fighting for their emancipation from capitalist slavery and exploitation. Lenin comprehensively investigated the history of the class struggle in Germany, the Prussian path of capitalist development in German agriculture and closely analyzed the distinctive features of German imperialism.

Now that there exist two independent states with differing socio-economic systems on German soil-the socialist German Democratic Republic and the capitalist Federal Republic of Germany. She problem of struggle between two class tendencies in German history continues to retain its urgency. An objective comparison of the fundamental principles underlying the economy, politics and ideology of the two German states, the author stresses, vividly reflects the basic contradictions of the contemporary epoch.

V. N. NIKIFOROV. Certain Aspects of China's History in V. I. Lenin's Works

The author examines a number of Lenin's works written between 1900 and 1913 and specially devoted to China, focussing attention on the following basic problems posed in them: the character of the Chinese revolution and of China's social system during that

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period. The author convincingly shows that V. I. Lenin's conclusions formed the basis of the Soviet conception of China's contemporary history and traditional social system. The conclusions drawn by Lenin are fully corroborated by modern science and, at the same time, pave the way for the further study of these problems.

V. A. DYAKOV. The Application of Sociologico-Statistical Methods in Studying the History of Liberation Movements

The article examines the general methodological problem of the correlation between history and sociology, and the concrete question of applying the sociologico-statistica! methods in studying the history of the revolutionary and national-liberation movements. Among the sources used by the author are the latest research works and materials of the 13th International Congress of Historical Sciences, as well as special works and archive documents on the history of the Russian and Polish liberation movements in the 19th century. Drawing on his analysis of diverse historical sources, the author arrives at the conclusion that employment of the sociologico- statistical methods in historical science, particularly in the process of studying the social movement, is useful and promising, provided the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the phenomena under investigation are duly taken into account.

V. I. SERGEYEV. Tracing the Sources of Siberian Chronicles

The Stroganov, Yesipov, Remezov and "Kungur" Siberian chronicles, along with the few official documents, are the main sources of research into the ancient Russian history of Siberia. The highly contradictory and mutually exclusive information contained in the records prompts the historians to give priority to any one of the preserved annals. This has given rise to a sharp controversy on the so-called "Siberian question", which has been in progress for over a century and a half and still shows no signs of abating. The article makes an attempt to re-examine the correlation existing between the Siberian chronicles by comparing their texts and the accepted method of chronologically recording the historical events.

A. A. SHEVYAKOV. Rumania's Foreign Policy in the Munich Period

The article analyzes Soviet-Rumanian and Rumanian-German relations in the most acute period directly preceding the war, showing the intensification of the reactionary, anti-Soviet foreign policy line followed by bourgeois Rumania since the establishment of a monarchist dictatorship in the country and nazi Germany's open demand to partition Czechoslovakia. The author stresses that the Rumanian rulers did their level best to thwart the Soviet Union's efforts aimed at safeguarding the national interests of Czechoslovakia. The article highlights the double game played by Rumanian diplomacy, its manoeuvring between the Anglo-French bloc and Hitler Germany, illustrating Rumania's pro-Hitler position maintained throughout the Munich period, her striving to establish close relations with fascist Germany without severing her traditional ties with Britain and France.

The tragic finale of Rumania's pro-Munich policy is viewed as the logical result of the anti- Soviet course steered by the Rumanian rulers.

L. N. VELIKOVICH. The Crisis of the Clericals' Anti-Communist Policy

The article characterizes the crisis of anti-communism appearing under the religious flag. The author analyzes the reasons prompting many realistic-minded leaders of the Catholic Church to abandon the crudest traditional forms of anti-communism. The tendency towards the Catholic Church's dialogue with the modern world, which became clearly pronounced since the early sixties, introduced certain changes in the tactic of the clerical anti-communism. The "Pacem in terris" encyclical of Pope John XXIII and the "Gaudium et spes" constitution approved by the Second Vatican Council testify to the evolution of the clerical anti-communism, to the Church's quest for new methods of struggle against its opponents. However, some of the influential hierarchs in the Roman curia are seeking to revive the spirit of anti-communism that existed in the Catholic Church in the days of Pius XII.

Orphus

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