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I. F. ANOSHKIN, J. G. GOLOTVIN, E. S. TROITSKY. International Significance of the Formation and Development of the U.S.S.R.

The article shows that the formation and development of the U.S.S.R. can be regarded as the fulfilment by the victorious Soviet working class and its allies of their internationalist duty to the working people of the whole world who are waging a difficult struggle against imperialism. The formation and development of the U.S.S.R. was a factor of major importance in altering the balance of world forces in favour of socialism. U exerted a strong influence on the emergence of the socialist world system, on the establishment of a new type of relations between different peoples and countries. The article also dwells on the profound many-sided influence exerted by the formation of the U.S.S.R. and by the national policy consistently pursued by the CPSU on the world-wide national-liberation movement.

T. P. AGAYAN. Building Up an Unbreakable Union

The article analyzes the developing movement of individual Soviet Republics towards a single federation which culminated in December 1922 in the formation of the U.S.S.R. as a centralized multi-national socialist state. Drawing on concrete historical material, the author shows the nation-wide character of the movement for the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the leading role of the Communist Party in carrying into practical effect Lenin's idea of establishing a federal state composed of equal Soviet Republics.

B. K. VIZER, Y. M. KOPANSKY. The Moldavian People's Road Towards Joining the Close-Knit Union of the Soviet Republics

The striving of the Moldavian people towards a close union with the Russians and other peoples of the Land of Soviets, the article stresses, was based on many years of joint struggle against their common enemies - a struggle which finally culminated in the establishment at the turn of 1917 - 1918 of Soviet government in Moldavia. The forcible annexation of Bessarabia from Soviet Russia in 1918 was chiefly responsible for the fact that at the time of the formation of the U.S.S.R. in December 1922 the overwhelming majority of the Moldavian people were unable immediately to take advantage of the favourable prospects opened by this historical act for their national-state development. An important landmark on the path of creating the Moldavian people's Soviet statehood was the establishment of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924 which stimulated the growth of the liberation movement in Bessarabia. The steadfast struggle carried on by the popular masses of Bessarabia against the invaders, which was actively supported by the working people of Rumania, coupled with the Soviet Union's efforts to achieve a just settlement of the Bessarabian question, culminated in Bessarabia's reunion with the U.S.S.R. The formation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1940 consummated the process of development of Soviet Moldavia's national statehood.

A. S. SUMBATZADE. Azerbaijanian Historical Science at the Present Stage

The article briefly surveys the development of historical science in Azerbaijan from the end of the fifties to the early seventies. The author examines a number of monographs, generalizing collective research works and collections of documents. Among the major achievements of Azerbaijanian historians is the compilation and publication of a three-volume "History of Azerbaijan." Side by side with investigating the history of their republic, Azerbaijanian researchers have produced a series of works devoted to diverse aspects of world history, primarily the history of the countries of the Near and Middle East.

N. V. ROMANOVSKY. Certain Problems of the Formation of the U.S.S.R. as Reflected in Contemporary Bourgeois Historiography

Drawing on abundant factual material furnished by a number of research works published in 1969 - 1972, the author makes an attempt to highlight certain new aspects of the formation of the U.S.S.R. as reflected in contemporary bourgeois historiography. N. V. Romanovsky singles out four categories of foreign authors: local bourgeois nationalists, great-power chauvinists, anti-Communist Sovietologists and objective researchers. The most numerous and active among these is the group of Sovietologists consisting of professional anti-Sovieteers and anti-Communists. The reactionary historians are trying to present the Leninist theory of the national question and the process of building up a multinational socialist state in a distorted light. Their efforts are chiefly directed towards falsifying the history of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Central Russia and in the country's outlying national districts, the struggle of the working masses under the leadership of the Communist Party for the victory and consolidation of Soviet power. The whole content of the works produced by reactionary Sovietologists is permeated with bourgeois nationalism. Nevertheless, all their efforts prove ineffectual because there are no objective historical facts to support them. This is graphically illustrated in the article on the materials furnished by Soviet research and by a number of works created by objective Western researchers.

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N. N. YAKOVLEV. Franklin D. Roosevelt - A Confirmed Advocate of Cooperation with the U.S.S.R.

The author makes an attempt to trace the motives that guided Franklin D. Roosevelt in shaping his policy in relation to the U.S.S.R. between 1933 and 1945. Particular emphasis is laid on the fact that Roosevelt was prompted above all by considerations of political realism, which enabled him to analyze soberly the alignment of forces on the international arena in the period preceding the war, and within the anti-Hitler coalition during the war years. The "balance of forces" principle was the chief doctrine underlying Roosevelt's policy in relation to the U.S.S.R. The American President was able to prove to his compatriots that cooperation with the U.S.S.R. accorded with the national interests of the U.S.A.

Y. V. KUDRINA. The Resistance Movement in Nazi-Occupied Denmark

Drawing on a wide range of historical sources and literary works, including Danish archive records, underground press publications and sundry other documents dating back to the period of nazi occupation, the article shows the principal stages of the Resistance movement in Denmark, its motive forces and the place and role of the working class in the nation-wide struggle against the nazi invaders. The author accentuates the prominent part played by the Danish Communist Party in organizing and developing the Resistance movement. The article makes a point of stressing that one of the distinctive features in Denmark was the interaction of the Communist and bourgeois Resistance movements over a number of years. This phenomenon is attributable, on the one hand, to the correct tactics evolved by the Danish Communist Party of organizing and directing the nation-wide popular front, and, on the other, to the more flexible policy adopted by the leadership of the bourgeois Resistance movement. The article also examines a number of other peculiarities characteristic of the Resistance movement in Denmark.

Orphus

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