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V. I. DEGTYAREV. The Leading Role of the Working Class in the Building of Communism (generalizing the experience gained by the Donbas)

Proceeding from the documents of the 24th Congress of the CPSU and drawing on a wealth of factual material furnished by the Donbas, the author highlights the leading, role played by the Soviet working class in the building of communism. The article shows that the working class of the U.S.S.R. is engaged in the decisive sectors of material production and marches in the van of scientific and technological progress. The working population of the industrial Donbas has always been the most advanced contingent of the Soviet working class. The contribution of the Donbas workers to the common cause of the entire Soviet people is demonstrated by characterizing the growth of their labour and political activity, the development of socialist emulation and more extensive participation of the working masses in the management of production and administration of state affairs.

V. K. RAKASHEVICH. Economic Cooperation of the Soviet Republics (1917 - 1922)

The article analyzes the main stages of economic cooperation between the Soviet Republics in 1917 - 1922. The author examines the various forms of economic cooperation and fraternal mutual assistance practised by the Soviet Republics, which were evolved in the period preceding the formation of the U.S.S.R. Considerable attention is devoted in the article to the guiding role of the Communist Party and the Soviet state in the practical realization of the Leninist national policy, in cementing closer bonds of friendship among the Soviet peoples in the. early years of Soviet government and in establishing economic preconditions for the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

A. A. KISELEV. Concessions Granted to Foreign Firms in the European North of the U.S.S.R.

In the years of the New Economic Policy a number of fishing, hunting and timbering concessions were granted to foreign firms in the European North of the U.S.S.R. Contracts granting the right to exploit the rich marine and timber resources of this area were concluded with British, German, Norwegian and Dutch firms and private businessmen. The Soviet state agreed to conclude such contracts in order to accelerate the restoration of the country's economy destroyed by the Whiteguards and foreign interventionists and to enable the young Soviet Republic to establish normal trade relations with capitalist countries. The most important part in revitalizing the economy of the Soviet Northern regions was played by mixed timber exploitation societies, such as Russangloles, Russnorvegoles and Russhollandles. A definite contribution was also made by the Repola-Wood and Mologoles timbering concessions. Norwegian companies and firms had an active share in developing the wealth of the Northern seas. The article is devoted to little-studied history of foreign business concessions operating in the European North of the U.S.S.R.

G. G. LITAVRIN. Rus and Byzantium in the 12th Century

The article traces the evolution of Russo-Byzantine relations in the 12th century in connection with changes in the internal socio-political structure of the two countries, and in the international situation in Europe and Southwest Asia. The author establishes a number of distinctive features in the character of political, economic and religious ties existing between Rus and Byzantium as compared with the preceding epoch. The prevailing uniform system of contractual relations which regulated all spheres of foreign policy contacts of the two states in the 10th-11th centuries was in the 12th century more and more frequently replaced by temporary agreements and alliances of the Empire with individual principalities of fragmentized Rus, subordinated, as a rule, only to the concrete task of the moment. The loss by Byzantium of its positions in Asia Minor, the rise of the Kingdom

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of Bulgaria, the barrier erected by the Polovtsi in the Black Sea basin and the economic predominance of Italian merchants in the Black Sea contributed to the gradual weakening of political contacts between Rus and Byzantium. The cultural and ideological aspect in the over-all system of relationships existing between the two countries acquired increasing significance as compared with the politico-economic aspect.

I. S. GALKIN, O. S. SOROKO-TSYUPA. The Teaching of Contemporary History in Soviet Universities

The article is devoted to the scientific-methodical problems of teaching contemporary history of the countries of Europe and America in Soviet universities. The authors single out a number of theoretical questions of contemporary history to which serious importance must be attached in the process of teaching. They emphasize the need of imparting a more conceptual character to the course of contemporary history. The increasing complexity of the historical process, the abundance and diversity of factual material, the new phenomena in the revolutionary process and the development of the class struggle in the capitalist world, the article stresses, demand that lecturers in contemporary history further improve their methods of instruction and skilfully combine in their lectures theoretical and regional-typological problems with the history of different countries.

V. E. NEVLER. Giuseppe Mazzini and Young Europe

The author investigates Giuseppe Mazzini's international activity which has been inadequately studied in historical literature, as well as Mazzini's contacts with Russian revolutionaries. The article analyzes the programmatic documents of Young Europe, an association founded by Mazzini in 1834, and shows that this organization represented the first international association of democratic forces in mankind's history, whose efforts were directed towards resolving social problems on the basis of equality and liberty. That Giuseppe Mazzini became widely known in Russia at the close of the 1840's should be largely attributed to Alexander Herzen's works which were clandestinely disseminated in the country. Many programmatic documents of Young Italy, organized by Mazzini in 1831, were well known to the Russian revolutionaries, including the authors of the Young Russia leaflet. A graphic confirmation of this is provided by the content of the leaflet. In the subsequent period Giuseppe Mazzini established connections with several leaders of the Land and Freedom organization and maintained permanent contact with them.

V. A. MATVEYEV. Towards Durable Peace in Europe (sustained efforts made in 1966- 1972 to promote European security)

The article traces the main stages of the struggle for collective security in Europe as an alternative to the continent's division into mutually opposed military blocs. Particular attention is devoted by the author to the policy consistently pursued by the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries belonging to the Warsaw Treaty organization in this question. The article also sheds light on NATO's activity aimed at impeding progress towards lasting peace and security in Europe. The author shows the persevering efforts of the progressive, democratic forces to surmount the artificially erected barriers which prevent Europe from achieving genuine peace and security.

Orphus

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