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V. S. LELCHUK. Soviet Industrialization During the Second Five-Year-Plan Period (1933 - 1937)

The article shows how the policy of socialist industrialization was mapped out and undeviatingly carried into practical effect during the second five-year plan - a period marked by the sharp intensification of production, essential improvement of all economic indices in the operation of industry and overfulfilment of the basic plan targets. His close and detailed analysis of these changes enables the author to draw the conclusion that in 1933 - 1937, as in the preceding five-year span, Soviet industrialization was keynoted by the continued expansion of large-scale industry and the steadily growing share of its output in the aggregate volume of industrial produce turned out by all branches of the national economy. It was precisely at this stage that practically all branches of industry became economically efficient and began to yield substantial profits. During the second five-year-plan period large-scale industry was transformed into tne chiet source of creating the national income, and the economic independence of the world's first socialist state was fully ensured.

L. V. VOSTOKOV. The Zionists' Anti-Popular Activity in Russia

Drawing on authentic materials and documents from the Soviet archives, the author examines a number of insufficiently investigated questions concerning the main trends of the anti- popular activity carried on by the Russian branch of the World Zionist Organization from the moment of its establishment at the close of the 19th century up to the Civil War period when it ceased to function legally. The author shows that the Zionists closely collaborated with the tsarist autocracy and later with the Provisional Government in the efforts to check the spread of the ideas of socialism, and were direct participants and faithful accomplices in the Whiteguard counter-revolutionary movement.

I. P. POPOV. The Liberal Movement of the Provincial Nobility in the Period of the Preparation and Carrying Out of the 1861 Reform Abolishing Serfdom

The article examines the principal stages of the liberal movement of the provincial nobility in 1857 - 1862, its programme, composition and the chief tactical methods of struggle. Side by side with emphasizing the progressive aspects of this movement aimed at abolishing serfdom founded on feudal exploitation and oppression and limiting the despotic police-bureaucratic regime in the country, the author shows its narrow class character (defence of the landowners' interests and fear of the mass peasant movement). Special attention is devoted in the article to the liberals of Tver who stood at the head of this movement, as well as to the influence exerted by the developments in Tver on the rise of the liberal movement in the country and on laying the groundwork for the peasant and other reforms carried out in the 1860's. The article is based on materials kept in the country's central archives, a large part of which are drawn into the scientific sphere for the first time.

J. A. KIZILOV. The Geographical Factor in the History of Medieval Rus

The article highlights certain aspects of the influence exerted by the natural environment on the processes and rates of development of different regions and principalities in Russia during the feudal period. The dense forests covering the East-European plain in the areas of uninterrupted historical culture, the wide dispersion of ploughland complexes fit for agricultural development and for a settled mode of life, their hydrographical insulation and natural isolation by forests and swamps adversely affected many aspects of life of the feudal formations. This had its impact both on the territorial division of such regions into principalities and provinces, and on the process of crystallization of ethnic,

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cultural and economic formations which determined the nature of subsequent development of the various forces and tendencies towards political unification.

A. M. MELNIKOV and L. V. MITROKHIN. The Indian Communists' First Conference and the Founding of the Communist Party of India

The authors shed light on the little-studied question concerning the preparation, deliberations and decisions of the Indian Communists' first conference at which the Communist Party of India was founded. In view of the fact that the conference was sponsored by the Indian Communist Party founded by Sathya Bhakta in September 1924, the article examines the programmatic documents of this party, its organizational structure and practical activity. Their close analysis of the materials brings the authors to the conclusion that the Indian Communist Party played a positive role in propagating the ideas of scientific socialism and in establishing a legally-functioning Communist Party of India.

V. N. BOLDYREV. The West Berlin Question as Reflected in Contemporary Historiography

The article gives a general appraisal of the major bourgeois publications devoted to West Berlin and related problems. At the same time the author administers a fitting rebuff to those who would like to falsify Soviet foreign policy in relation to West Berlin, notably in connection with the so-called "Berlin crisis" (1948 - 1949) and the measures taken by the German Democratic Republic with the aim of safeguarding more securely and tightening control of the border with West Berlin (August 13, 1961), as well as with regard to questions concerning the special status of this city. In the course of his investigation the author has drawn into the scientific sphere a number of new archive materials and hitherto unknown or little-known publications. In the concluding part of his article the author briefly surveys a number of works on West Berlin which recently appeared in the Soviet Union and the fraternal socialist countries.

O. L. STEPANOVA. U. S. Foreign Policy as Viewed by "Revisionist" Historians

The article briefly characterizes the "revisionist" trend in contemporary American historiography (Williams, Kolko, Alprowitz et al.) which advanced to the fore of American historical science in the past few years. The author's attention is focussed on the theoretical conceptions linked with the history of U. S. foreign policy. The "revisionist" historians (who are far removed from Marxism) cite convincing arguments to prove the invariably expansionist character of America's foreign policy which was chiefly responsible for the emergence of the cold war. The article also graphically shows that the "revisionists" theoretically substantiate the need for the U.S.A. to conduct a "balance of strength" policy in present-day conditions.

CONTENTS

of the journal "Problems of History" No 3, 1973

Articles: V. S. Lelchuk. Soviet Industrialization During the Second Five-Year-Plan Period (1933 - 1937); L. V. Vostokov. The Zionists' Anti-Popular Activity in Russia; I. P. Popov. The Liberal Movement of the Provincial Nobility in the Period of the Ppreparation and Carrying Out of the 1861 Reform Abolishing Serfdom; Y. A. Kizilov. The Geographical Factor in the History of Medieval Rus; A. M. Melnikov, L. V. Mitrokhin. The Indian Communists' First Conference and the Founding of the Communist Party of India; V. N. Boldyrev. The West Berlin Question as Reflected in Contemporary Historiography; O. L. Stepanova.U. S. Foreign Policy as Viewed by "Revisionist" Historians. Historical Essays: N. D. Mozharov. The Friendship Pipeline; G. M. Derenkovsky. Rosa Luxemburg in St. Petersburg and Kuokkala (1906); N. R. Guseva. Hinduism: Mythology and Its Roots. Historical Science in the U. S. S. R. and Abroad. Surveys: L. I. Ginzberg. Journal on the History of the Labour Movement (G.D.R.). Book Reviews: L. S. Ozerov. Socialist Construction in the U.S.S.R. and International Proletarian Solidarity (1921 - 1937); "Research in Russia's Socio-Political History"; N. P. Komolova. The Resistance Movement and Political Struggles in Italy (1943 - 1947); V. A. Nikitin. America's Right Extremism-A Threat to Democracy; M. A. Zaborov. Historiography of the Crusades (15th-19th centuries); Ph. S. Foner. The American Working Class and the Indo-China War. The Growing Trade Union Opposition. Scientific Notes. Facts, Events, People. Articles in Soviet and foreign historical journals. New books in the U.S.S.R. and abroad.

Orphus

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