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A. M. ANFIMOV. The Peasant Movement in Russia in the Second Half of the 19th Century

Drawing on the "Peasant Movement in Russia" documentary series and other available research works, the article examines the scale, directions, forms and stages of the revolutionary struggle carried on by the Russian peasantry in the period from the abolition of serfdom in 1861 up to the first Russian revolution. The author closely analyzes the statistics of the peasant manifestations and graphically shows that notwithstanding the defeat of the Narodniks revolutionary movement, the peasant struggle in the latter half of the 19th century continued to remain the social mainstay for the development of the democratic parties; it played a definite role in undermining the counter-reforms and advanced the agrarian question to the forefront of social struggle in Russia. The peasant outbreaks at the close of the 19th century laid the groundwork for a new stage of the movement-the struggle for the abolition of the system of big feudal landownership.

M. S. ZINICH. The Soviet Machine-Tool and Heavy Engineering Industries in 1941 - 1945

The article highlights one of the important processes in the development of the Soviet machine-tool and heavy engineering industries in the period of the Great Patriotic War - the building of new plants and reconstruction of existing ones. The author cites data convincingly illustrating the damage inflicted by the fascist aggressors on this branch of industry and showing the erection of new major industrial projects in the Eastern parts of the country, whose commissioning permitted to increase the output of military and civilian goods; much attention is devoted by the author to the rebuilding of destroyed enterprises which was carried out-for the first time in human history-in conditions of the continuing war.

Industrial construction in the U.S.S.R. in the years of the Great Patriotic War achieved results hitherto unknown in the practice of world construction. They were made possible by the planned system of economy, the devoted labour effort of the Soviet people and the guiding activity of the Communist Party.

L. I. BALASHOVA. The Workers' Control Over Distribution in the Period of Preparation of the Socialist Revolution

Drawing on the materials relating to Moscow and Moscow Provinces, the article examines the question of the struggle carried on by the working class in 1917 to gain control in the sphere of distribution of consumer goods. This movement which was brought into being by the economic dislocation and by the whole course of the class struggle in the country, became a graphic manifestation of the revolutionary creative activity of the masses. The materials analyzed by the author highlight the leading role of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) and its local committees in the organization of this movement and in imparting it a distinct socialist orientation. In conjunction with the workers' control over production this movement played a conspicuous part in the struggle to preserve the country's productive forces and lo prepare the masses for the socialist revolution.

E. S. EVSEYEV. From the History of Zionism in Tsarist Russia

The author examines the genesis of Zionism, its organizational and political structure on the territory of the Russian Empire in the period 1873 - 1917. Drawing on concrete historical material, the author shows how in the specific conditions of Russia the Zionists performed definite political tasks with a view to safeguarding the interests of the cosmopolitan Jewish bourgeoisie in the system of Russian capitalism and bringing the Jewish population completely under the sway of diverse representatives of the financial-industrial oligarchy and the Judaist clerical upper crust. The article also exposes the Zionists' activity

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in provoking and fostering anti-Semitic sentiments which were always welcomed and encouraged by Zionism as an effective means of uniting the poorest and most downtrodden sections of the Jewish population under the leadership of the bourgeoisie. The author convincingly reveals the profoundly reactionary and counter- revolutionary essence of Zionism's ideology and politics.

A. S. KAHN. Bourgeois Historiography of the Swedish Revolution of 1809 - 1810

The article traces the development of scientific and socio-political views on the Swedish bourgeois revolution, beginning with its contemporaries and direct participants and ending with modern times. The author has drawn extensively on the works of Swedish and Finnish historians, for whom the war of 1808 - 1809, the coup d'etat of 1809, the 1809 Constitution and the coming of a new dynasty in 1810 are problems of first-rate significance. Scientific controversy around the 1809 events has always been associated with the political and ideological struggle in Sweden. The conservative-nationalistic conception (dating back to H. Erte, a prominent leader of the Swedish historical school and of the revolution) which predominated in the 19th century came to be replaced in the 1910's by the liberal one (expounded by A. Brusevitz and others). In the contemporary period, notably after the second world war, this conception was further developed by the radical bourgeois historians strongly influenced by Marxism (A. Thomson, E. Wibling, R. Karlbum).

M. V. DEMIKHOVSKY. Colonization of America's Western Lands and the Distinctive Features Attending the Development of Capitalism in the U.S.A.

The article highlights the history of the formation of the public lands in the United States of America and the struggle around the principles of their utilization from the introduction of the basic principles and provisions of land tenure under the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 to the adoption of the Homestead Act in 1862. The author examines the position of the rich planters and the bourgeoisie as regards the use of land in the western states at different stages in the history of the federal public domain, analyzes the causes that prompted them to alter their agrarian policy in the 1840's - 1850's and highlights the socio-economic consequences of the changes introduced in the land reform during that period as-well as the class essence of the struggle for the acquisition of government land. The article sheds light on the struggle waged by the American workers and farmers against the government's agrarian policy which furthered the interests of the capitalists and planters, for the introduction of the democratic principles governing the use of the public lands, as well as on the activity, social essence and historical significance of squatter organizations and the National Land Reform Association. The author examines the development of commodity production, the system of land tenure by lease and the employment of hired agricultural labour in the western states, tracing the impact which the colonization of trans-Appalachian lands had on the development of capitalism in the U.S.A. and the specific features of this development caused by the mass movement to America's western states.

L. S. PERELOMOV. The Rise of the Imperial System in China

The imperial system which prevailed in China for over two millenniums exerted a strong influence on the development of Chinese society, its statehood and traditional ideology, as well as on the world outlook of many generations-of the country's intellectual elite. Acquainting the reader with the views of ancient. Chinese thinkers and political leaders who gradually evolved a theoretical platform of imperial power (Guan Chung, Tsy Chian, Confucius, Mo Tsy, Shang Yang), the author brings out the similarity of their conceptions with the theories expounded by the Mao Tse-tung group-the present-day supporters of a strong authoritarian regime. Disclosing the content of the Maoist slogan of "utilizing antiquity for the benefit of contemporaneity," the author takes the critical analysis of Yang Yung-go's article (published in Hungchi magazine, No. 12 for 1972) as an example to show how the Maoists distort and garble the objective facts of history to further their own ends.

Orphus

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