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L. A. SLEPOV. The Bolsheviks' Left-Bloc Tactics

The article sets forth the concrete historical experience of employing the Left-bloc and compromise tactics by the Bolshevik Party in the struggle to create a single revolutionary front directed against the tsarist autocracy, the landlords and capitalists. The author shows that the agreements of the working class with the Left revolutionary forces signified its hegemony in the revolution, helped it politically to enlighten the masses, to disclose the real aims of the petty- bourgeois parties not merely in words but in deed, to expose the limited character of their programme, and to win over the masses, especially the peasantry, to the side of the revolution. The article also focusses attention on illustrating the character of the Left-bloc tactics as well as the terms on which the Bolsheviks concluded political agreements with other parties of the non- proletarian working masses.

E. S. SHERSHNEV. Concerning the History of Soviet-American Economic Relations

The article examines the main stages in the development of commercial, financial, scientific and technical relations between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. Characterizing the period of the rise and development of these relations, the author shows the practical forms of implementing Lenin's idea of the peaceful coexistence of countries with differing socio-economic systems, evaluates the economic significance of this cooperation and lays particular stress on the advantages it offers to both sides. The article points out that despite the contradictory approach to this question manifested by the American side, cooperation of the two countries reached its highest level in the years of the second world war. The subsequent American policy of curtailing economic ties with the socialist countries has, essentially, been tantamount to expunging twenty-five years from the history of Soviet-American economic cooperation. The author analyzes the significance of the Moscow Summit meeting in May 1972 and highlights the specific features manifested by each side in the present-day approach to such important issues as normalizing relations in the sphere of trade policy, establishing business contacts and settling other problems pertaining to Soviet-American economic relations.

E. D. CHERMENSKY. The Isarist Autocracy and the Third State Duma

The article examines the evolution of tsarism towards the bourgeois monarchy of the Bonapartist type. The author maintains that the Constitution introduced in Russia after 1905 was greatly curtailed and more or less fictitious in character. To maintain the semblance of constitutionalism was one of the components of the political course steered after the coup d'etat of June 3, 1907, and it was absolutely inevitable for the ruling elite and the liberal opposition to follow this course. The State Duma enabled the bourgeoisie to engage in bargaining and to come to terms with the monarchy and the ultra-reactionary landowner class. The ruling element clearly realized that the political system established

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after the coup d'etat of June 3 represented that minimum of "law and order" without which foreign banks could not believe in the stability of the Russian financial system and the internal political situation generally. But most important of all is the fact that by its heroic struggle in 1905 - 1907 the Russian proletariat, according to Lenin, once and for all made it impossible to govern Russia without representative institutions.

A. K. KISLOV. The White House and the Zionist Lobby

The author discloses the interrelations between the White House and the Zionist lobby over the past fifty years, tracing the influence exerted by the Zionists on the political life of the U.S.A. in general and their ties with the White House, beginning with the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson, in particular. Considerable attention is devoted in the article to the causes of this influence which becomes especially pronounced during election campaigns, as well as to the methods employed by the Zionists in their activity. The author stresses that the Zionists' possibilities to secure at definite stages the introduction of certain correctives beneficial for them in the U. S. foreign policy line are not unlimited. In the final analysis the decision to further one or another concrete course of action remains the prerogative of the U. S. authorities which express the interests of the capitalist class as a whole. That is why the determinative aspect of relations between the Zionist lobby and the White House is the need for international Zionism to adapt itself to the interests of American imperialism.

Y. N. KOROLEV. The Struggle for the Unity of the Working Class in Chile (1956 - 1970)

The author highlights the acute political and ideological struggle attending the emergence and consolidation of the United Trade Union Centre of Chile - a powerful organization of the country's working population uniting about one million workers, office employees and peasants. The article analyzes the peculiarities in the structure of the Chilean working class and its organizations, and emphasizes the outstanding role played by the Chilean Communist Party in the struggle to achieve labour unity. The unity of the Chilean working class provided the groundwork for the establishment of a broad alliance of democratic and anti-imperialist forces, on the basis of which there emerged a coalition of the Left political parties - the Popular Unity Bloc, which gained victory in the presidential elections of September 1970. The country's working class is the chief motive force which directs the process of revolutionary transformations taking place in Chile.

V. M. MASSON. Barter and Trade in Primitive Society

The article shows that barter constituted an indispensable element in the life of ancient societies. While not altering the natural character of the economy, it had a vast significance, contributing to the spread of technical improvements and tending to bring closer together different - often even unrelated - tribes. Apart from the natural diversity of developed and settled territories, a conspicuous part among the factors stimulating commodity exchange in the early stages of mankind's history was played by cultural traditionalism in the use of certain articles and materials. An important indication of the process where barter began to develop into trade was the appearance of money. Inasmuch as money in primitive society did not yet serve as a universal instrument of exchange or a means of payment, it did not oust other modes of exchange. The gradual replacement of barter relations by primitive trade becomes a factor influencing the economy and promoting the development of individual lines of production stimulated by the market.

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