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"Problems of History" No. 9, 1969.

A. O. CHOUBARYAN. International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties and the Tasks of Historical Science.

The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties has demonstrated the for a more thorough elaboration of the cardinal questions of the political, economic, social, and ideological development of the world to-day, its history and prospects, and, in particular, of the features of modern imperialism and of the present international relations. The article dwells on the main directions of the work carried on by Soviet historians studying the formation and role of the world socialist system.

The struggle against bourgeois ideology demands an intensified attention and a thorough study of modern concepts of bourgeois historiography, its ways and methods.

The article shows the large-scale work carried out by Soviet historians in connection with the preparations for Lenin's Centenary.

L. A. BEZYMENSKY. Lessons of History (30 years since the beginning of World War 11).

The author writes about the events that led to World War 11 from the point of view of the lessons which should be taken into consideration by the peaceloving forces in the present international situation. He cites many facts to prove his criticism of the ideas of western historians who deny the existence of ties between Hitler and German monopolies, and shows that the Nazi regime was a manifestation of the political, military and strategic aspirations of German capital. The author criticizes the so-called "improvisation theory" of World War 11 and confirms the conclusion made at the Nurnberg Trial about the existence of a plot against peace organized by the Third Reich leaders.

The analysis of the diplomatic situation on the eve of World War 11 shows that the Soviet plans to establish a collective security system in Europe were frustrated by the anti-communist policy pursued by the leaders of western powers at that time. The author specifies the conditions which forced the Soviet Union to sign a non- aggression pact with Germany in 1939. Analysing the London-Berlin secret gamble, the author brings in witnesses to prove the existence of a far-reaching Anglo-German conspiracy against the Soviet Union.

The lessons of the eve of World War 11 show the fatal role of anti-communism in the history of the XX Century. Those lessons are kept in mind by the peaeeloving forces struggling for a stronger peace in Europe, for a collective security system.

G. M. ALEXEYEV. The Inventors' and Innovators' Movement in the USSR.

The article traces back the sources and features of the mass movement of inventors and rationalizers. They have lived through 50 years of development from the first groups of inventors to a mass movement. The author shows that the development of the movement is not confined to numerical growth and economic effectiveness. It is of a great social importance for it meets the vital interests of the working people in socialist society, facilitates and changes the nature of labour of millions of people, increases its productivity, creates conditions for the elimination of difference between brain work and manual labour.

The inventors' and innovators' movement in the USSR to-day is characterized by a high cultural and professional level of its members, the indissoluble connection of their work with the state plans to speed up the progress in technology, the established and ever stengthening business cooperation of workers, engineers and scientists in production process, genuine collectivism and mass character.

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C. M. DEUTSCH. The Problems of "Iskra': Clandestine Technique in Lenin's Letters of 1900 - 1903

The author shows that clandestine technique was of great importance in the underground struggle of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party for the formation of new type party. G. M. Deutsch uses Lenin's letters of 1900 - 1903 to analyze some questions concerning this problem and first of all the clandestine correspondence technique. Lenin maintained intensive correspondence with scores of people, organizations and groups both in Russia and abroad. Hundreds of names, mostly pseudonyms and nicknames, are to be found in the letters. The author systematizes and analyses all available information on this subject. Lenin paid a great deal of attention to the technique of the organization of personal meetings and illegal crossings of Russian frontiers, to the struggle against provacateurs, to the transportation of "Iskra" across the frontiers. The author comes to the conclusion that Lenin was not only "Iskra" 's ideological leader but also the leader of all its organizational activity including clandestine technique.

M. V. NECHKINA. The Green Years of V. O. Klyuchevsky.

The article is a chapter of a new monograph by Academician M. V. Nechkina. It is entitled "Vasilii Osipovich Klyuchevski" and is based on many documents which have never been used before. The article is devoted to the childhood of the historian, his training in theological schools and seminary. The article shows the gradual formation of young Klyuchevski's interest in history, his accumulation of historical knowledge, up to Klyuchevski's entering Moscow University. Much attention is paid to the epoch, friends and teachers of Klyuchevski, to his influence upon the youth movement which was formed in Russia in the revolutionary situation of the late fifties and early sixties of the last century.

Y. A. LEVITSKL Some Important Problems of the History of West European City of the Period of Developed Feudalism.

The article dwells on the medieval feudal city, the integral element of the feudal society. Its history is inseparably linked with the agrarian history of feudalism. The city and the village under feudalism make a whole. The statement hat feudalism can exist without the city is equivalent to the statement that productive forces under feudalism can develop without social division of labour. The problem of commodity production in the feudal epoch which is based on the separation of the city from the village, and of the role of the city in the formation of home market has not been elaborated properly. The diversity of the concrete conditions of the emergence, formation and development of the medieval city and the origin of the prerequisites for the later transition to capitalism, demands generalization and apportionment of its various types though there is a unity of the general laws of the process. The author writes that most diverse acpects of typological generalizations are possible here - economic, social, political, ideological, cultural, ethnic, and so on.

G. V. KORANASHVILI. The Reasons for Lack of Development of Slavery in the Ancient East.

The article is aimed at explaining the reasons why the classic forms of slavery were not developed in the Ancient East.

In antique countries prerequisites for the development of this social institution were various natural conditions, adoption of many achievements of ancient peoples, decomposition of neighbour communities, emergence of cities as centres of handicraft and trade, etc. The sufficiently high level of production development in the conditions of intensified argiculture, large-scale handicraft manufacture, trade, mining industry and so on, made possible the development of social division of labour and forms of property under which slavery became the basis for the development of antiquity.

The author comes to the conclusion that in the Ancient East where the geographic and historical environments were unfavourable, cities and trade were inadequately developed and rural communities were stable, slavery remained an insignificant element of the social and economic system. The labour of communal peasants formed the pattern of the system, which caused its qualitative difference from the antique society.



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