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I. M. KRASNOV. Newly-Discovered Lenin Documents on Soviet-American Relations

The article is based on six hitherto unknown documents written personally by V. I. Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Federation. The documents date back to the period 1918 - 1919 and shed a new light on the sources of development of Soviet-American relations. The greater parts of these documents were discovered in the archives of the United States. They make it perfectly obvious that the Soviet government headed by Lenin fought consistently, patiently and perseveringly for durable universal peace, for the establishment of businesslike relations with all countries, and already at that period exerted every effort to normalize relations with the United States of America.

V. G. TRUKHANOVSKY, Corresponding Member of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. An Important Stage in the Leninist Peaceable Foreign Policy (certain problems of Soviet foreign policy in the 1920's - 1930's)

The history of the Soviet Union's foreign policy is systematically presented in a distorted light by many bourgeois authors. Particularly strenuous efforts are made by bourgeois historians to "prove" that there exists a fundamental difference between the foreign policy pursued by the Soviet state at a time when it was guided by V. I. Lenin, and the foreign policy line followed in the 1920's - 1930's after Lenin's death, when the U. S. S. R. allegedly repudiated the Leninist foreign-policy principles of the socialist state, notably the principle of proletarian internationalism and the principle of the peaceful coexistence of states with different socio-economic systems, and during the 15 years preceding the second world war conducted a foreign policy which was far removed from the one charted by Lenin. These and similar attempts on the part of bourgeois falsifiers of history to misrepresent and distort Soviet foreign policy are effectively refuted by the abundant factual data and ducumentary materials cited in the article.

The author graphically shows that in the 1920's - 1930's Soviet foreign policy underwent no changes and continued to remain a policy of internationalism. Notwithstanding the formidable difficulties and incredible hardships our country had to contend with, the Soviet Union remained true to its internationalist duty and continued to render all-round assistance to the working-class, revolutionary, democratic and national-liberation movements in different countries. Consistently implementing the principle of the peaceful coexistence of states with differing socio- economic systems, the U. S. S. R. attached serious importance to the promotion of contacts and cooperation with bourgeois countries. Truly titanic efforts were invested by our country in curbing the forces of aggression and safeguarding peace among the nations. The author draws the conclusion that in the period under review Soviet foreign policy succeeded in providing external conditions for the building of socialist society in the U. S. S. R. and in creating favourable conditions for defending the gains of the October Revolution against nazi aggression on the battlefields of the Great Patriotic War.

I. V. BASOV. The Role Played by the Soviet Navy in Thwarting Nazi Germany's Strategic Plans

Drawing chiefly on a number of official German documents dating back to the period of fascist dictatorship, the author shows the utter insolvency of the strategic plans drawn up by nazi Germany's High Command and directed against the Soviet Navy. The Soviet naval forces actively helped the land armies to conduct military operations against the enemy in the maritime sectors of the front. At the same time, they successfully solved the tasks of struggle for sea communications, which were acquiring increasing significance owing to the protracted character of the war. All this forced the Wehrmacht Command to alter its plans at the height of the war, to rush additional army contingents and aircraft to the maritime sectors of the Soviet-German front and to engage an ever larger number of warships in military operations.

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JERZY PAWLOWICZ. At the Sources of People's Poland

The article traces the history of the rise and development of People's Poland, highlighting the main factors, which ensured the victory of popular rule in the country in 1944. The author also exposes some of the bourgeois falsifiers of history from the ranks of the Polish emigres. The concrete factual material arrayed by the author vividly confirms the conspicuous fart played by the working masses under the leadership of the Communists in the Resistance movement and in the establishment of People's Poland. Of especial significance in the struggle against the nazi invaders, for the victory of the democratic forces in Poland, was the all-round disinterested assistance rendered the Polish people by the Soviet Union. The victory scored by the U. S. S. R. in the second world war and the forces that had matured in Poland prior to her liberation under the leadership of the Polish Workers' Party determined the outcome of the revolutionary transformations effected in the country and ensured the successful development and consolidation of the system of people's democracy in Poland.

F. I. KOZHEVNIKOV and V. A. MAZOV. The United Nations Organization and the Problem of Safeguarding World Peace

The irresistible urge of the broadest popular masses, of people belonging to most diverse political trends and sharing different philosophical views, to find effective ways and means of safeguarding universal peace and security prompts one to ask what real significance the United Nations has or can have in furthering a cause so vitally important for the peoples of all countries. In their attempt to highlight this problem the authors make a close analysis of the most essential aspects of the activity of the United Nations as an instrument for the maintenance of peace, carefully examining the provisions of the U. N. Charter and the attitude of the countries with different social systems to this highly influential international organization.

K. P. VOSHCHENKOV. Tracing the History of the Democratic Solution of the Danubian Problem

The author convincingly shows how for more than a century the biggest capitalist powers - Britain, France, Austro-Hungary, Kaiser and Hitler Germany (and after the termination of the second world war also the United States) - tried to establish their hegemony in the Danubian basin with the aim of economically and politically enslaving the peoples of the riparian states situated in this area.

The article graphically reveals the keen diplomatic and political struggle around the Danubian problem, which developed into an important international issue since the middle of the 19th century. In the new historical conditions which arose after World War II, the Western Powers' imperialist plans to re-establish their privileges in the Danubian basin ignominiously failed, and the claims put forward by American imperialism - the new aspirant to controlling power over the Danube - were resolutely rebuffed. The adoption in 1948 of a new Convention regulating international navigation on the river contributed to an effective solution of the Danubian problem on democratic principles.

L. V. MILOV. Certain Aspects of the Primary Accumulation and Genesis of Capitalism in Russia

The article examines a number of controversial questions concerning the nature of the process of the so-called primary accumulation and genesis of capitalism in Russia. The author polemizes with a number of historians who maintain that elements of primary accumulation could already be observed in Russia as early as the 16th-17th centuries. He also comes out against an oversimplified approach which finds expression in the tendency to regard any manifestation of wage labour as an element of capitalist relations.

The author subscribes to the view of those historians who maintain that prior to the abolition of serfdom the process of primary accumulation in Russia did not reach the stage of a leading historical process, as was the case in England. The period, which might be called the era of primary accumulation in Russia apparently, relates to the first decades following the abolition of serfdom, while the early manifestations of capitalist relations were merely historically balanced with elements of primary accumulation. The author believes that, unlike in England, the process of primary accumulation in Russia, as in most other European countries, was not carried to its logical conclusion.

Orphus

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