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M. N. CHERNOMORSKY. Soviet Industry in the Early Years of the New Economic Policy

The article continues the discussion (begun in the preceding issues of our journal) of a number of unsolved questions pertaining to the history of the New Economic Policy. Drawing on materials furnished by current industrial statistics, M. N. Chernomorsky examines the basic trends in developing the production of means of production and increasing the output of consumer goods during the economic rehabilitation period. The author shows that the rate of development in the mining and metallurgical, engineering, metal-working and chemical industries was much higher than in the other 16 groups of production. His analysis of the internal structure of state-controlled, private-leased (including concessions) and private capitalist industry enabled the author to show the dominant position occupied by the state sector in the key branches of production. The state sector included the most important enterprises manufacturing consumer goods and engaged in the initial processing of raw materials. All this made the private sector in industry completely dependent on the state sector and precluded any possibility of independent extended reproduction. In conclusion the article points out that in 1925 industry as a whole was rehabilitated and brought very close to the 1913 level.

E. V. GUTNOVA. Humanism and the First Steps of Bourgeois Historiography

The article briefly surveys West-European humanist historiography of the 15th-16th centuries, examining the first stage in the development of bourgeois historiographical thought in Europe. Bringing out the new and progressive elements introduced by humanist historians in the development of historical knowledge compared with feudal-church historiography of the earlier period (secular, rationalist interpretation of history, new critical methods of research, renunciation of theological treatment of history), the author stresses the contradictory character of the historical and socio-political views of many humanist historians, notably their inconsistency in the struggle against the Church, their idealistic conception of the historical process, their class and partisan tendentiousness. The author characterizes the principal schools of humanist historiography (rhetorical, erudite, political) and the most distinguished representatives of these schools in Italy - Leonardo Bruni, Flavio Biondo, Laurentius Valla, Niccolo Machiavelli, Francesco Guic-ciardini. Of the humanist historians of other countries the article singles out Francis Bacon, Thomas More, B. Renan, Sebastian Franck. In conclusion the author traces the influence exerted by humanist historiography on the subsequent development of historical science, particularly emphasizing its impact on bourgeois historiography.

V. P. SHERSTOBITOV and D. F. VINNIK. The Development of Historical Science in Soviet Kirghizia (1917 - 1964)

The article shows the development of historical science in Kirghizia in the years of Soviet power. The initial development stage and the first tangible successes registered by historical science in the republic, in the authors' opinion, continued for about 25 years-from the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution to the early 1940's. The second stage embraces the period from the forties to the first half of the fifties,

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and the third-from the mid-1950's to the present time.

The first stage (up to the forties) was marked by the stubborn struggle for the triumph of the Marxist-Leninist methodological principles in historical science, against idealist and bourgeois-nationalist conceptions of the historical process. This stage is characterized by considerable achievements in the training of national historians and organizing historical research centres.

The second stage (up to the mid-1950's) was distinguished by intensive research in the pre-revolutionary period of Kirghizia's history. It was precisely during that stage that the pernicious consequences of the Stalin personality cult made themselves felt most strongly in historical science.

The present stage in the development of historical science in Kirghizia is characterized by an exceptionally wide scope of research. The range of historians' scientific interests has become immeasurably broader and the level of theoretical research has risen substantially. The creative activity of the popular masses and the guiding role of the Communist Party in the building of socialism and communism are disclosed much more profoundly. The article analyzes a number of works produced by Kirghiz historians.

G. V. SHARAPOV. Soviet Trade Unions' International Ties

The article is devoted to the Soviet trade unions' international ties in 1959 - 1965. It is based on extensive factual material illustrating the proletarian solidarity shown by the Soviet trade unions for the struggle waged by the working class in the capitalist countries against imperialism, for improving its social and economic position, for closer unity of the international labour movement, for the promotion of peace and friendship among nations. The author vividly describes the Soviet working people's proletarian solidarity with the national-liberation struggle of the peoples fighting against imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism, the assistance rendered by the Soviet people in developing their national economy. The article shows the close and friendly multilateral ties existing between the trade unions of the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist countries.

O. F. SOLOVYOV. The Soviet Government's Efforts to Promote Peaceful Co-existence with Britain

The article describes the efforts made by Soviet Russia in 1917 - 1918 to normalize relations with Britain and other former allies of Russia. Their official representatives were allowed to carry on their activity on Russia's territory and maintain regular contacts with their governments. The Soviet government, on its part, appointed an official representative to London. Furthering the interests of the allied powers, the Soviet government included in the Russo-German armistice agreement a clause forbidding the transfer of German troops from Russia to the Western Front. Yet the ruling circles of Britain, guided by their selfish interests, began an open struggle against the Soviet state. They refused to recognize Soviet Russia, tried to prevent its withdrawal from the imperialist war, financed the internal counter-revolutionary forces and were making preparations for an armed intervention. Great Britain initiated the plan to divide Russia into spheres of influence. A clause to that effect was inserted in the Anglo-French agreement of December 23, 1917, which was also approved by the U.S.A. The author graphically shows how this policy was actively opposed by the working people of Britain.

P. E. OSIPOVA. Tanganyika Under British Colonial Oppression

The author traces the history of Tanganyika in the period between the first and second world wars. The article examines the so-called indirect administration system. The colonialists artificially maintained and fostered the patriarchal organization in the country, incited enmity and strife among different tribes, bribed tribal chieftains and

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expropriated the land belonging to the indigenous population. The author also dwells on the social changes which took place in Tanganyika in the period under review-the appearance of the landless proletariat and the rise of the national bourgeoisie. The British colonialists' predatory policy, the article stresses, was one of the main causes that gave rise to mass popular manifestations against the colonial regime.

P. E. Osipova critically analyzes a number of works by foreign authors devoted to this subject.

M. M. SHEINMAN. The Pontificate of John XXIII

In the short period of his pontificate (1958 - 1963) Pope John XXIII effected a radical turning point in the Vatican's policy, which, in the final analysis, actually amounts to recognition of the vast social changes that have taken place in the world and, to a certain extent, of the need for the Catholic Church to adapt itself to these changes. The author shows that John XXIII pronounced himself in favour of the peaceful co- existence of states with differing social systems, denounced war and appealed for disarmament. While fully subscribing to his predecessors anti-Communist views and notions, John XXIII came out in 1963 for co-operation between Catholics and Communists. John XXIII renounced the traditional frankly hostile attitude towards the socialist countries.

As regards social problems, the author writes, John XXIII remained on the positions of his predecessors. However, his efforts were directed towards modernizing Catholicism and adapting it to the new conditions. This modernization pursued the aim of strengthening the influence of religion and overcoming the crisis of faith. His policy of rapprochement between different churches and religions was designed to achieve the same ends.

In conclusion M. M. Sheinman shows how bitterly the conservatives and "traditionalists" opposed the changes in the Vatican's policy introduced by John XXIII.

Orphus

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