Libmonster is the largest world open library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

share the publication with friends & colleagues

M. N. CHERNOMORSKY. Soviet Industry in the Early Years of the New Economic Policy

The article continues the discussion (begun in the preceding issues of our journal) of a number of unsolved questions pertaining to the history of the New Economic Policy. Drawing on materials furnished by current industrial statistics, M. N. Chernomorsky examines the basic trends in developing the production of means of production and increasing the output of consumer goods during the economic rehabilitation period. The author shows that the rate of development in the mining and metallurgical, engineering, metal-working and chemical industries was much higher than in the other 16 groups of production. His analysis of the internal structure of state-controlled, private-leased (including concessions) and private capitalist industry enabled the author to show the dominant position occupied by the state sector in the key branches of production. The state sector included the most important enterprises manufacturing consumer goods and engaged in the initial processing of raw materials. All this made the private sector in industry completely dependent on the state sector and precluded any possibility of independent extended reproduction. In conclusion the article points out that in 1925 industry as a whole was rehabilitated and brought very close to the 1913 level.

E. V. GUTNOVA. Humanism and the First Steps of Bourgeois Historiography

The article briefly surveys West-European humanist historiography of the 15th-16th centuries, examining the first stage in the development of bourgeois historiographical thought in Europe. Bringing out the new and progressive elements introduced by humanist historians in the development of historical knowledge compared with feudal-church historiography of the earlier period (secular, rationalist interpretation of history, new critical methods of research, renunciation of theological treatment of history), the author stresses the contradictory character of the historical and socio-political views of many humanist historians, notably their inconsistency in the struggle against the Church, their idealistic conception of the historical process, their class and partisan tendentiousness. The author characterizes the principal schools of humanist historiography (rhetorical, erudite, political) and the most distinguished representatives of these schools in Italy - Leonardo Bruni, Flavio Biondo, Laurentius Valla, Niccolo Machiavelli, Francesco Guic-ciardini. Of the humanist historians of other countries the article singles out Francis Bacon, Thomas More, B. Renan, Sebastian Franck. In conclusion the author traces the influence exerted by humanist historiography on the subsequent development of historical science, particularly emphasizing its impact on bourgeois historiography.

V. P. SHERSTOBITOV and D. F. VINNIK. The Development of Historical Science in Soviet Kirghizia (1917 - 1964)

The article shows the development of historical science in Kirghizia in the years of Soviet power. The initial development stage and the first tangible successes registered by historical science in the republic, in the authors' opinion, continued for about 25 years-from the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution to the early 1940's. The second stage embraces the period from the forties to the first half of the fifties,

стр. 220

and the third-from the mid-1950's to the present time.

The first stage (up to the forties) was marked by the stubborn struggle for the triumph of the Marxist-Leninist methodological principles in historical science, against idealist and bourgeois-nationalist conceptions of the historical process. This stage is characterized by considerable achievements in the training of national historians and organizing historical research centres.

The second stage (up to the mid-1950's) was distinguished by intensive research in the pre-revolutionary period of Kirghizia's history. It was precisely during that stage that the pernicious consequences of the Stalin personality cult made themselves felt most strongly in historical science.

The present stage in the development of historical science in Kirghizia is characterized by an exceptionally wide scope of research. The range of historians' scientific interests has become immeasurably broader and the level of theoretical research has risen substantially. The creative activity of the popular masses and the guiding role of the Communist Party in the building of socialism and communism are disclosed much more profoundly. The article analyzes a number of works produced by Kirghiz historians.

G. V. SHARAPOV. Soviet Trade Unions' International Ties

The article is devoted to the Soviet trade unions' international ties in 1959 - 1965. It is based on extensive factual material illustrating the proletarian solidarity shown by the Soviet trade unions for the struggle waged by the working class in the capitalist countries against imperialism, for improving its social and economic position, for closer unity of the international labour movement, for the promotion of peace and friendship among nations. The author vividly describes the Soviet working people's proletarian solidarity with the national-liberation struggle of the peoples fighting against imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism, the assistance rendered by the Soviet people in developing their national economy. The article shows the close and friendly multilateral ties existing between the trade unions of the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist countries.

O. F. SOLOVYOV. The Soviet Government's Efforts to Promote Peaceful Co-existence with Britain

The article describes the efforts made by Soviet Russia in 1917 - 1918 to normalize relations with Britain and other former allies of Russia. Their official representatives were allowed to carry on their activity on Russia's territory and maintain regular contacts with their governments. The Soviet government, on its part, appointed an official representative to London. Furthering the interests of the allied powers, the Soviet government included in the Russo-German armistice agreement a clause forbidding the transfer of German troops from Russia to the Western Front. Yet the ruling circles of Britain, guided by their selfish interests, began an open struggle against the Soviet state. They refused to recognize Soviet Russia, tried to prevent its withdrawal from the imperialist war, financed the internal counter-revolutionary forces and were making preparations for an armed intervention. Great Britain initiated the plan to divide Russia into spheres of influence. A clause to that effect was inserted in the Anglo-French agreement of December 23, 1917, which was also approved by the U.S.A. The author graphically shows how this policy was actively opposed by the working people of Britain.

P. E. OSIPOVA. Tanganyika Under British Colonial Oppression

The author traces the history of Tanganyika in the period between the first and second world wars. The article examines the so-called indirect administration system. The colonialists artificially maintained and fostered the patriarchal organization in the country, incited enmity and strife among different tribes, bribed tribal chieftains and

стр. 221

expropriated the land belonging to the indigenous population. The author also dwells on the social changes which took place in Tanganyika in the period under review-the appearance of the landless proletariat and the rise of the national bourgeoisie. The British colonialists' predatory policy, the article stresses, was one of the main causes that gave rise to mass popular manifestations against the colonial regime.

P. E. Osipova critically analyzes a number of works by foreign authors devoted to this subject.

M. M. SHEINMAN. The Pontificate of John XXIII

In the short period of his pontificate (1958 - 1963) Pope John XXIII effected a radical turning point in the Vatican's policy, which, in the final analysis, actually amounts to recognition of the vast social changes that have taken place in the world and, to a certain extent, of the need for the Catholic Church to adapt itself to these changes. The author shows that John XXIII pronounced himself in favour of the peaceful co- existence of states with differing social systems, denounced war and appealed for disarmament. While fully subscribing to his predecessors anti-Communist views and notions, John XXIII came out in 1963 for co-operation between Catholics and Communists. John XXIII renounced the traditional frankly hostile attitude towards the socialist countries.

As regards social problems, the author writes, John XXIII remained on the positions of his predecessors. However, his efforts were directed towards modernizing Catholicism and adapting it to the new conditions. This modernization pursued the aim of strengthening the influence of religion and overcoming the crisis of faith. His policy of rapprochement between different churches and religions was designed to achieve the same ends.

In conclusion M. M. Sheinman shows how bitterly the conservatives and "traditionalists" opposed the changes in the Vatican's policy introduced by John XXIII.

Orphus

© libmonster.com

Permanent link to this publication:

http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-11-29-22

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Libmonster OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: http://libmonster.com/Libmonster

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 29.11.2017. URL: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-11-29-22 (date of access: 18.03.2019).

Found source (search robot):



Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Publisher
Libmonster Online
New-York, United States
130 views rating
29.11.2017 (474 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes

Keywords
Related Articles
This video https://youtu.be/MJeWOcqqrKo demonstrates alternating current, where sinusoids are formed by positive and negative half waves; and rectified current formed by only positive half-waves. Electric current is the orderly movement of charged particles. But in metallic conductors, in addition to mobile free electrons and stationary ions, there are no other charges. So what kind of talk does this video show?
Catalog: Physics 
Yesterday · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
ПОДВИГ В ХОДЕ ЭВАКУАЦИИ
Catalog: Military science 
15 days ago · From Libmonster Online
The article gives my short life story with a list of my discoveries. May the terrible moralists forgive me, I call these hypotheses discoveries because their logical connectedness and conformity with the materialistic dialectic of thinking does not allow to doubt that truth has been found here.
Catalog: Philosophy 
15 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
I wrote this article when I was 33, and I, who did not understand anything in physics, but who had logical thinking, were outraged by those alogisms and paradoxes that flowed from Einstein’s logic of relativity theory. But it was criticism at the level of emotions. Now, when I began to think a little bit in physics, and when I discovered the law of the difference of gravitational potentials, and based on it I built a five-dimensional frame of reference, it is now possible to prove the inaccuracy of Einstein’s theory of relativity at the level of physical laws.
Catalog: Physics 
22 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Awareness of man himself, the birth of the human “I” occurred through a qualitative leap in the process of evolution of the population of brain giants, which appeared as a result of crossing Homo sapiens with Neanderthals.
Catalog: Science 
24 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
istory make the masses. But the masses are ruled by leaders. The influence of an individual on the development of social processes is the greater, the greater the influence this personality has on the consciousness of individuals, as well as on the social consciousness of groups, classes and nations. The formula of Marx's social progress — the developing productive forces of society outgrow their production relations, throw them off and give birth to new ones — true, but only with Lenin's amendment: man is the main productive force of humanity.
Catalog: Psychology 
24 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
The fundamental difference between a herd of animals and a human society is the presence of social laws formed by the consciousness of people in human society. Anthroposociogenesis is the process of forming into the consciousness of hominids of social laws, through the indefinite and combinational variability of genotypes with the elimination of those hominids that are not capable of subjecting their activity to laws.
Catalog: Science 
24 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Comparing all that is united by the concept of "mine" with all that is united by the concept of "not mine" the concept of "I" is born. Here begins the development of the individual consciousness of modern man, here began the development and individual consciousness of fossil people. It also began its development and public power, which initially could not have any other form, as soon as the form of protection of a mother who realized her motherhood to her children. Both individual consciousness and public power originate in the form of legal consciousness, and, first of all, in the form of awareness of the issues of belonging of certain objects to certain individuals, that is, in the form of awareness of the concepts "mine is not mine", "my child is not my child".
Catalog: Psychology 
24 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Dialectics is often called the tool of knowledge of nature. But, in the opinion of the author of this article, this tool is still as imperfect as the scissors would be imperfect, without the central screw uniting the two blades of this tool. This "cog" in dialectics is the fact that the "struggle" of opposites, which is the driving force behind the development of all processes of nature, is not absolute. "Struggle" is born when the dialectic system deviates from the state of equilibrium, and the goal of this "struggle" is to restore the lost equilibrium of the system.
Catalog: Philosophy 
25 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, studying the physiological process, which he called the conditioned reflex, suggested that this process is the basis for the formation of mental reactions of all living organisms, including the thinking process of a human of a modern species. But, in our opinion, the human thinking process of the modern species is based not on one, but on four types of conditioned reflexes.
Catalog: Psychology 
26 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov

ONE WORLD -ONE LIBRARY
Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.


Click here to create your own personal collection
SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES
 

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Libmonster ® All rights reserved.
2014-2019, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)


LIBMONSTER - INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK