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G.F. DACHSCHLEIGER. The Principal Stages in the Development of Historical Science in Soviet Kazakhstan

The article traces the process of the rise and development of historical science and the training of national historians in Kazakhstan, which prior to the October Revolution was a backward outlying district of tsarist Russia, in the Soviet period. The author points out that notwithstanding the specific conditions and formidable difficulties attending the development of historical science in the Kazakh S.S.R., its periodization essentially coincides with the main stages in the progress of historical science in the U.S.S.R. He points to the acuteness of ideological struggle around the problems of Kazakhstan's history, emphasizing the vast significance of the triumph of Marxist-Leninist methodology in Kazakhstan's historiography. The author traces the progress of research in the basic problems of Kazakhstan's Soviet and pre-revolutionary history, singling out a number of debatable questions still awaiting solution. The chief attention in the article is devoted to a characteristic of the present stage in the development of historical science in Kazakhstan, which was ushered in by the Twentieth CPSU Congress. G.F. Dachschleiger convincingly shows the harmful consequences of the Stalin personality cult for Kazakhstan's historiography and describes the efforts to overcome them. The author stresses the scientific value of the basic generalizing works devoted to the history of Kazakhstan, reveals the interconnection between historical science and related social sciences, characterizes the inestimable assistance rendered by the Soviet Union's leading historical research institutions and prominent scientists in the field of promoting and advancing historical science in Kazakhstan, as well as in the training of national historians. The article graphically illustrates the extension and strengthening of contacts between Kazakhstan's research institutions and the institutes of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences' Department of History.

Noting the achievements of historical science in Soviet Kazakhstan, the article at the same time reveals its shortcomings.

V.L. ISRAELYAN. The Leninist Policy of Peaceful Co-existence and Normalization of the Soviet Union's Relations with the Capitalist Countries

The article shows that diplomatic recognition of the Soviet state by the capitalist countries signified a major victory for the Leninist foreign policy, whose general line has always been based on the peaceful co-existence of states with differing social systems. The normalization of relations, the author writes, was achieved in a stage-by-stage process which began in the early years of the Soviet state and ended in mid-1930's. The entire period can be divided into the following three stages: first stage-1920 - 1922, second stage-1924 - 1925 and third stage-1933 - 1935. The article notes that the establishment of normal diplomatic relations between the U.S.S.R. and the capitalist countries has opened up wide prospects for developing and extending all-round contacts between the Soviet people and other nations. It has led to the promotion of political and economic co-operation between different countries and to the development of their cultural and scientific ties. It has paved the way for successful negotiated settlement of certain controversial issues between the Soviet Union and capitalist countries. In conclusion V.L. Israelyan writes that in its multiform activity and vigorous efforts to normalize relations with the capitalist world, Soviet diplomacy vividly manifested its Leninist traits: fidelity to principle, political realism, flexibility and readiness to reach agreement by mutual concessions.

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A.Y. GUREVICH. Certain Aspects of Research in Social History (Socio-Historic Psychology)

The article is devoted to social psychology as one of the most essential aspects of social life which must be taken into account in the process of historical research. Inasmuch as the objective prerequisites of historical events are transformed into their real causes only through the conscious activity of men taking part in these events, a close study of the sum-total of diverse factors prompting men's actions-including not only objective, socio-economic, but also subjective, socio-psychological factors-is of major importance for historical research. Hence, an attentive study of the psychological pattern, social customs, norms, traditions and sentiments of men of the past is regarded as an indispensable element in interpreting historical phenomena, while the socio-psychological factor is viewed as one of the motive forces of the historical process.

Research in social psychology is linked with a thorough and concrete analysis of the social structure of society, for frequent attempts on the part of many Western scientists to divorce men's psychology from their social relations lead to subjectivism and absolutization of the psychological factor, which is even more dangerous for science than attempts at totally disregarding it. Social psychology studies the psychology of diverse social groups, classes and strata. Among the various groups acting as the vehicle of social psychology, the strongest influence on the other social strata is exerted by the class. The psychology of all the other social structures must be studied side by side with class psychology.

Among the methods of research in the social psychology of the past much importance is attached by the author to an analysis of the social norms, traditions, rituals and diverse symbols (including works of art and other relics of culture), which broadly reflect the essential traits of men's social psychology in the past. He shows the difference existing between the method of social psychology as applied to the past and the methods employed by contemporary psychologists and sociologists (based on questionnaires, etc.). The article stresses that in this respect the historian is able to rely on the aid of other sciences, such as ethnography, folklore, linguistics, literary and art criticism, general psychology, etc. The author highlights the experience gained by a number of Soviet (B.A. Romanov, E.M. Staerman, B.F. Porshnev) and Western (L. Febvre, J. Huizinga, R. Mandron, A. Dupront, J. Meyerson, Z. Barbu, etc.) historians in the study of social psychology. Social psychology is regarded as one of the means contributing to a comprehensive and synthetic understanding and reflection of the historical process, of which the popular masses are the chief motive force.

N.Y. KOLPINSKY and V.A. TVARDOVSKAYA. M.A. Bakunin in the Russian and International Revolutionary Movement

The article represents a brief essay on the life and Vork of Mikhail Bakunin, a distinguished Russian revolutionary Narodnik (Populist) and one of the ideologists of anarchism. The main attention in the article is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of Bakunin's role in the Russian revolutionary movement.

The article emphasizes that Bakunin's place in Russia's liberation movement is determined not only by his contribution to the development of revolutionary-democratic traditions but also by the harm done to this movement by his anarchist ideas. The article traces the complex path of overcoming anarchism in the Russian liberation movement and graphically shows that Narodism as a political trend was unable to rid itself completely of Bakunin's illusions because the ideological roots of Bakuninism formed the underlying basis of Narodist ideology.

The authors also dwell on Bakunin's activity in the European working-class movement, notably in the International Working Men's Association. Particular attention is devoted to analyzing the splitting and undermining activities carried on by Bakunin and his followers in the First International, to the struggle waged by Marx and Engels against Bakuninism, which helped to expose the characteristic features of anarchist sectarianism as a distinctive variety of petty-bourgeois ideology. In conclusion the authors point out that the rich historical experience gained by the working-class movement in the process of ideological and organizational struggle within the First International, as well as the object-lessons of this struggle, have lost none of their significance in our days.

Y.P. AVERKIEVA. The Problem of Historism and Contemporary Bourgeois Ethnography

The article is devoted to an analysis of contemporary trends in the development of Western bourgeois ethnography. The author's attention is focussed on a characteristic of the scientists' shift towards historism, of an intensive search for a sociological theory capable of explaining the history of human society. The author stresses the contradictory and eclectic character of the views held by many Western ethnographers, who endeavour to

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combine the concepts of the old schools with new and more progressive tendencies in the development of contemporary Western ethnography. The article points to the growing influence exerted by the Marxist-Leninist conception of history on Western ethnographers.

Side by side with these progressive methodological trends the author also points to considerable thematical changes in the field of ethnographical research: idealization of the past and archaization of the present are gradually giving way to a broad study of the contemporary period, primarily to research in the culture and way of life of underdeveloped countries. Africa is becoming the main object of this research. The transition to contemporary subjects has given rise to a number of major theoretical problems (urbanization, the possibility of "guided" cultural development, etc.).

These new developments in bourgeois historiography are examined on materials furnished by the "ethno-historical," "functional" and other leading contemporary schools.

O.A. ANTONOVA. The Reactionary Essence of Contemporary Adventism

Speaking of the rise and development of Adventism, the author shows that its ideology represents a peculiar variant of Christian theology - a distinctive variety of religious metaphysical idealism of the most reactionary type. Adventism views the multiform phenomena of social life through the prism of eschatology, interpreting them as fulfilment of divine providence. Adventist views on the state are distinguished for their contradictory character. On the one hand, the state is regarded by them as something created by the will of God, while on the other it is viewed as a frail and imperfect creation of men which is inevitably doomed to destruction. Adventism strives to obscure the fundamental distinctions between the socialist and the bourgeois state, to distort the essence of the socialist state as the embodiment of a higher form of democracy compared with the bourgeois state. The Adventist theoreticians' sympathies are wholly on the side of the bourgeois state, whose principles coincide with their own political aspirations. O.A. Antonova emphasizes that Adventism's ideologists are categorically opposed to the participation of the popular masses in the country's political life. Instead of the active struggle for social transformations they preach "unity in the name of Christ," i. e., spiritual unity irrespective of class distinctions. As regards the problems of war and peace, here too Adventism's position is thoroughly reactionary. War, the Adventists maintain, is a thing of the near future, a sign of the imminent advent of Christ portending the end of mankind's history. Man is powerless to prevent war. Thus, Adventism essentially comes out as an active propagandist of a destructive war. In this sense it fully subscribes to the ideology of imperialism which calls for a nuclear crusade against communism. The author also exposes the Adventists' reactionary views on ethics.

In conclusion O.A. Antonova writes that Adventist ideology is thoroughly imbued with mysticism and irrationalism, that its efforts are directed towards impeding and hurling back the development of human society. Adventism plays an active reactionary role in the present-day acute struggle between Marxist and bourgeois ideologies.

Orphus

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