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T. HAIDU and A. SIKLOS. The Great October Socialist Revolution and Hungary (1917 - 1919)

The article makes a detailed analysis of the influence exerted by the Great October Socialist Revolution on the working-class movement in Hungary. The Hungarian labour movement after the October Revolution proceeded under the popular slogan: "We shall emulate the Russian example!" In November 1918 the Hungarian Communist Party was founded. Foreign occupation or the struggle for national self- determination, the strengthening of capitalism or forging ahead along the path of the socialist revolution in alliance with Soviet Russia - such was the dilemma facing the country. Only the working class was able to find a way out of Hungary's critical position. On March 21, 1919, a proletarian revolution triumphed in Hungary. After the peoples of the former tsarist Russia, Hungary was the first country to take the path of socialist revolution. The Hungarian Soviet Republic convincingly proved that the Soviet system founded on the dictatorship of the proletariat was not a "specifically Russian" phenomenon. The Hungarian proletarian revolution was enthusiastically greeted by the working people all over the world. And though the Central European outpost of revolution was overthrown by the armed intervention and tight blockade instituted by European imperialism, the reactionary forces succeeded merely in achieving a military, not a political victory. The Leninist ideas of the October Revolution are now reigning supreme in free and independent Hungary.

M. M. KORONEN. Finnish Participants in the October Revolution

M. M. Koronen's article describes the part played by Finnish workers in the preparation and carrying out of the Great October Socialist Revolution. It clearly shows that the close ties between Finnish and Russian revolutionaries had been established long before 1917. Many prominent leaders of the Russian revolutionary movement often fled to Finland to escape persecution by the tsarist authorities. On the eve of the October Revolution a considerable number of Finnish citizens lived in Petrograd. They had their own organizations, most of which supported the Bolshevik Party. In February-June 1917 there existed in Petrograd a militia unit made up of Finnish proletarians. During the October Revolution a Finnish Red Guard contingent was formed in Petrograd.

The author shows the powerful impact the October Revolution had on Finland. Finland was granted state independence by the Soviet government. In January 1918, when a revolution broke out in Finland, the Soviet state rendered every possible assistance to the Finnish working class in its struggle against the combined forces of the Finnish and German bourgeoisie. After the revolution was defeated, the organs of Soviet power extended a hospitable reception to the Finnish revolutionaries emigrating to Soviet Russia. In conclusion M. M. Koronen stresses that the fraternal relations between the working people of Russia and Finland based on mutual assistance and support were a vivid manifestation of proletarian internationalism.

L. G. BESKROVNY. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 78 and the Balkan Peoples' Liberation Struggle

The victory achieved by the Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 78 brought independence to a number of countries on the Balkan Peninsula, whose peoples had been groaning under Turkish domination for centuries. L. G. Beskrovny vividly tells in his article how Russia, beginning with the emergence of the Eastern crisis in 1875, made consistent efforts to liberate the Balkan peoples. When diplomatic efforts failed to bring the desired results, Russia resorted to arms. The author shows how the Russian people's fraternal cooperation with the peoples of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Rumania was forged and strengthened in the common struggle, how the joint military operations of the Russian army and the Serbian, Bulgarian and Rumanian contingents

стр. 220

contributed to the success of the whole campaign. At the same time L. G. Beskrovny stresses the unseemly role played by the Rumanian government in those years. Furthering the narrow selfish interests of the national bourgeoisie and landlords, it tried to prevent the liberation of the Slav peoples and to perpetuate Rumania's status as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. This tendency was clearly manifested in the period of military operations and in the postwar diplomatic struggle.

A. S. NIFONTOV. The Development of Russian Agriculture in the 1860's- 1870's

A. S. Nifontov's article is devoted to an analysis of the rates at which capitalist production was introduced in Russia's agriculture in the sixties and seventies of the last century - an important problem that has not as yet been adequately investigated by Russian researchers. The author makes extensive use of statistical data on the state of agriculture in the European part of Russia in the period 1850 - 1876, materials illustrating the spread of tenant farming and the amount of land purchased by peasants, as well as the changes in the countryside resulting from the abolition of serfdom.

The author draws the conclusion that the state of Russian agriculture during the transition period of the 1860's-1870's graphically confirms V. I. Lenin's thesis that "the capitalist economy could not emerge at once, the corvee economy could not disappear at once." The decelerated rates of agricultural development at that period could not as yet create objective conditions for any extensive differentiation process among the peasantry.

V. S. YAGIA. Ethiopia's Development After Liberation from the Yoke of Fascist Italy

The article traces the most important developments in the life of Ethiopia after her liberation from the yoke of fascist Italy in 1941. Since that time Ethiopia passed through two major periods in her historical development: from May 5, 1941 to 1954 inclusive, and from 1955 to our days. In the first stage the country had to exert every effort to eliminate the pernicious consequences of aggression and of the five years of Italian occupation, and to establish a single centralized state. The main threat to the independent existence of the Ethiopian state in 1941 - 1954 was presented by Britain. Ethiopia managed to expel British imperialism from the country, thereby strengthening her independence. The second period in Ethiopia's development after the expulsion of the Italian occupation forces is characterized by her efforts to build up an independent national economy, deliver the country from its shackling economic dependence on the Western Powers, follow a policy of neutrality and nonalignment and promote the unity of African states. This period was marked by tangible democratization of social life, heightened activity of the Ethiopian working class and the rise and development of progressive forces striving for a radical reorganization of the country's entire life. Ever since 1941 the struggle against imperialism and colonialism, for the safeguarding and consolidation of the country's independence, has been and remains Ethiopia's basic goal.

W. BERTOLD, G. LOTZEK and H. MAIER. The Principal Trends in the Development of West-German Historiography

Following the collapse of the fascist regime in Germany in 1945, the basic principles of German apologetic historiography were subjected to a thorough reappraisal. Some of its leading representatives (Meinecke, Ritter and others) were seized by depression and national nihilism. Many bourgeois scientists hoped to find a way out of this blind alley in a new foreign policy and ideological orientation, in building up an anti-Soviet coalition of defeated German imperialism with the Western victor powers. This made it necessary to adapt the reactionary "German historism" to the new conditions with a view to facilitating the "European integration" of West-German historical science. In the postwar period the main forces of reactionary West-German historiography rallied around Ritter. In the early 1950's there emerged liberal and democratic opposition to this trend represented by Fischer, Rantzau, the Peters couple and Alexander Staufenberg A large group of pseudo-liberal historians was headed by Rothfels (this trend still continues to exert a dominant influence on West-German historiography). A distinctive group in West-German historiography is formed by historians specializing in "Ostforschung" Pro-fascist and neo-fascist tendencies in West-German historical thought became more pronounced in the early 1960's. The new trends in West- German bourgeois historiography are characterized by the struggle between the prevailing reactionary and the moderate liberal trends.

стр. 221

Artdrew ROTHSTEIN. Daniel Defoe and the Northern War

The article analyzes the foreign policy of the British rulers at the very beginning of the bourgeois period in the history of England (early 18th century) and the use of the press for the furtherance of their aims. During the War of the Spanish Succession and the Northern War it was very important for the ruling classes of England to find ways and means of moulding and exercising control of public opinion-a thing absolutely unwarranted and unknown even in the feudal period. During the war the press was used more extensively than ever before to build up public support for the diplomatic and military aims of the ruling classes. Being a typical representative of the petty bourgeoisie of his time, Daniel Defoe, the well-known author of a series of books and pamphlets, published a magazine called Review for nine years. He was the first outstanding bourgeois journalist and publicist. The article represents an attempt to shed light on this little-known and still inadequately investigated sphere of Daniel Defoe's activity.

I. P. TSAMERYAN, The Marxist-Leninist Theory of Nation: Certain Outstanding Problems

The author of this article examines three basic questions that arose in the discussion of the concept of nation: Is it necessary to introduce radical changes in the existing definition of the concept of nation?; Historical types of nations; Nations and national statehood.

I. P. Tsameryan expresses his disagreement with those authors who raise the question of a radical revision of the Marxist definition of nation and proves that the definition of nation given by J. V. Stalin is a scientific Marxist definition which requires only certain minor amendments. I. P. Tsameryan is against the proposal to include the existence of national statehood in the definition of the concept of nation as one of its indispensable indications. Citing concrete historical material, the author graphically shows that nations can arise and develop without the existence of their own statehood. The author also substantiates two historical types of nations and rejects the proposals of certain other authors that the name of "bourgeois nation" should be changed into "socially heterogeneous nation."

Y. V. KACHANOVSKY. The Concepts of "Slavery" and "Feudalism"

The author believes that in view of a certain non-conformity of facts relating to non- Europeari history and the historically evolved concepts of slavery and feudalism, it is necessary to subject the latter once again to aserious reappraisal and further improve them by analyzing new factual material and bringing out the most, essential indications of the slave-owning and feudal modes of production, which are fundamentally similar both for Western and Eastern societies. The article hypothetically formulates the essential indications of slavery and feudalism. The fact that the exploiters systematically appropriated from immediate producers not only the surplus product but also part of the necessary product is singled out by the author as the underlying feature of slavery. From this point of view feudalism fundamentally differs from slavery, the main distinguishing feature being that, owing to the higher level of development of the productive forces attained under feudalism, the exploiters essentially have no longer any need to appropriate a part of the necessary product from producers. They are fully satisfied with appropriating the surplus product which increased more or less substantially compared with the era of slaveownership.

Orphus

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