Libmonster is the largest world open library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

share the publication with friends & colleagues

V. A. SHISHKIN. The October Revolution and the Soviet Government's Economic Relations with the Capitalist World (1917 - 1918)

Bourgeois historiography is at pains to prove that the foreign policy of the Soviet state in the early years following the October Revolution was devoid of any constructive ideas in the sphere of international cooperation. Yet it is a well-known fact that from its very inception the Soviet state positively replied to the question of the possibility of establishing economic relations with the capitalist world. The basic principles of the Russian Federation's foreign economic policy in relation to bourgeois states (full equality and mutually advantageous cooperation) and towards countries where the proletariat is in power were formulated in 1917 - 1918.

The underlying principles of Soviet foreign economic policy and the basic forms of economic relations with capitalist countries were elaborated in extremely complicated conditions of struggle against the "Left Communists" in the period of the Brest- Litovsk peace and found their embodiment in a number of documents of Soviet administrative and economic bodies. The author makes a detailed analysis of these documents. An extremely important role in working out the cardinal principles of the Russian Federation's foreign economic policy was played by V. I. Lenin. In conclusion the author emphasizes that the history of the rise and development of Soviet foreign economic policy provides graphic evidence of the closest attention devoted by the Soviet government to the problem of establishing economic relations with the capitalist world, of its sincere desire to promote mutually beneficial international economic cooperation from the very first days of Soviet power,

A. Y. GRUNT. The "New Barricade Tactic" and the Armed Uprisings of 1905 and 1917

The article is devoted to the question of the barricade struggle as an historically evolved form of the armed uprising. Analyzing the experience of the armed uprisings of 1905 and 1917, the author comes to the conclusion that the new element in the tactic of these uprisings consisted not in combining barricades with partisan warfare but in renouncing the barricade struggle as a defensive form threatening to doom the uprising, and in the revolutionary forces applying the offensive tactic as the only correct one for the achievement of victory.

Referring in this connection to Kautsky's views, A. Y. Grunt draws the conclusion that Karl Kautsky had no valid grounds for revising the ideas expounded by Engels, who never denied the role of the armed uprising in future revolutions but merely pointed out with full justification that the barricade tactic would have to be replaced by the offensive one. The author stresses that V. I. Lenin's elaboration of the tactical questions of an arr med uprising was based on the conclusions drawn by Engels.

A. A. AKHTAMZIAN. Concerning the History of the Brest-Litovsk Negotiations of 1918

The author draws on hitherto unknown documents relating to the peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk in December 1917-March 1918. The materials found in the archives of diplomatic history, notably the German delegation's telegraph communication with its government (the so-called Kuhlmann's cryptograms), make it possible. to shed a new light, on the diplomatic situation prevailing, at the peace conference. Particular attention is devoted by the author to the events of February 9 - 10,. 1918, when Trotsky, acting in. contravention of V. 1. Lenin's directives, arbitrarily broke off the talks. The article also examines the political struggle which developed within the Bolshevik Party over the signing of the Brest-Litovsk peace, showing the profound substantiation of Lenin's position, the insolvency of the attitude taken by "Left Communists" and the harm caused by the pernicious "Trotsky line". The article exposes the aggressive actions of German diplomacy, the predatory nature and adventurism of German imperialism.

I. V. BESTUZHEV. The Development of Ideas on the Future of Mankind in Pre-Marxian Social Thought

The article dwells on major problems concerning the development of ideas on the future of mankind in the world's social thought from the earliest times to the mid-19th century, the peculiar character of ideas on the future in primitive thinking, the development of religious conceptions of the future, utopianism, the concepts of the future in the philosophy of history. The author draws attention to the peculiar presentism of primitive thinking, reflected in contraposing the past and future to the present. The article briefly examines the evolution of religious conceptions of the future from primitive

стр. 221

mythology to developed eschatology of Buddhism, Christianity and Mohammedanism, emphasizing the important role played by chiliasm in influencing the ideology of popular movements in the remote past. The article analyzes the concept of utopianism as an arbitrary approach to the future of mankind, which, in contradistinction to eschatology, is no longer directly linked with providentialism and, at the same time, is not yet founded on a scientific understanding of the objective laws governing the development of nature and society. The author proposes a classification of utopian social doctrines according to the specific social system they reflect (primitive communal, slaveowning, feudal, bourgeois and socialist Utopian schemes with subsequent subdivisions). The author singles out the ascending and descending stage in the evolution of utopianism. The development of ideas on the future of mankind, examined in connection with the formation and evolution of three main conceptions of the historical process (the conception of regress from the Golden Age, the conception of cyclical development and the conception of social progress), is characterized as the shaping of direct historical prerequisites of scientific prevision, whose real history begins with the spread of Marxism. From this point of view the subject of the article is the pre-history of a scientific prevision of mankind's future.

G. A. MELIKISHVILI. Concerning the Nature of Early Class Societies

The author distinguishes three periods in the development of a class society - the early-class, the developed-class and the late-class (the period of transition to a developed classless society). To the first period he attributes the oldest class societies which arose in the East and in other parts of the world. The article maintains that the early class societies cannot be regarded as slaveowning, because slave labour played an insignificant part in their production and the exploitation of the slaves as such was marked by the tendency of closely resembling the protofeudal type of exploitation, which was very widespread in regard to the local population. "The Asian mode of production" described by Karl Marx on the example of the Oriental despotic regimes represents one of the varieties of the early class society. Parallel with this, the early class societies can be either slaveowning or early feudal in character, but in most cases they are distinguished by the coexistence or different socio-economic systems. As a rule, the early class societies developed towards feudalism; their transformation into developed slaveowning societies (as in Greece and Rome) was the result of an exceptional situation determined, side by side with internal causes, by the uneven character of development of interacting societies, which enables the more developed of them to shift the main burden of exploitation to the outside.

N. I. PAVL'ENKO. Controversial Questions of the Genesis of Capitalism in Russia

Of the whole complex of controversial questions concerning the genesis of capitalism in Russia, the author singles out the following four points which have given rise to the most serious divergence of views during the discussion: 1) characteristic of the phenomena connected with the "new period" in Russian history; 2) the role played by small-commodity production and simple capitalist cooperation in the genesis of capitalism; 3) the role of manufacture in the rise and development of capitalism; 4) establishing the chronological boundary of the period of capitalist development and the disintegration of feudalism.

The main content of the article is devoted to an analysis of V. I. Lenin's interpretation of the "new period" in Russian history and to the critique of the historiographical tradition of applying this interpretation to concrete research.

The author points out that researchers do not always draw a clear line of distinction between small-commodity and capitalist production, attributing to the latter small- scale enterprises employing hired labour. Yet this type of production, based on simple reproduction, existed for centuries. Conditions for the development of small- commodity production into capitalist production appeared in Russia only in the second half of the 18th century. The wide spread of hired labour in the transport system and in simple capitalist cooperation-an argument most frequently advanced by advocates of the early genesis of capitalism in Russia - is interpreted as a factor testifying to the sporadic appearance of the capitalist mode of production, for simple capitalist cooperation does not produce a stable form of new relations.

N. I. Pavlenko proposes to examine the history of the rise and development of manufacture in close connection with the destiny of the feudal formation. Prior to its disintegration in the second half of the 18th century, the prevailing feudal system deformed the emerging capitalist manufacturing enterprises and made them serflike in character. Only from the second half of the 18th century feudal relations lost their ability to exert a powerful influence on the nature of manufactory production.

The author disputes the opinion of those historians who assert that the process of disintegration of feudalism began in the early 17th century. The disintegration of feudalism and the development of capitalism are regarded by N. I. Pavlenko as two sides of a dual process whose beginning dates back to the second half of the 18th century.

Orphus

© libmonster.com

Permanent link to this publication:

http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-10-14-24

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Libmonster OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: http://libmonster.com/Libmonster

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 14.10.2017. URL: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/SUMMARIES-OF-MAJOR-ARTICLES-2017-10-14-24 (date of access: 18.10.2019).

Found source (search robot):



Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Publisher
Libmonster Online
New-York, United States
280 views rating
14.10.2017 (734 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes

Keywords
Related Articles
In macroscopic reality, gravity is determined by mass. In microscopic reality, where the particle mass is practically zero, the rotational form of gravity acts. The rotational form of gravity is formed by means of rotating microparticles, which spin gravitational spheres around themselves, which, as in a whirlpool, attract microparticles to each other.
Catalog: Physics 
4 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
The paper covers a model of generation of fundamental forces induced by neutrino interference with other particles. Neutrinos fill up vacuum and inter-vacuum space obtaining a long-range action. Fundamental binding “proton-neutrinoselectron” has been defined and its transformation under various conditions into atom of hydrogen or neutron is studied. The paper also considers structuring of nucleus and electron atomic shell. Electron is positioned on stationary shell creating intraatomic and interatomic forces. Fundamental forces are generated due to neutrinos interference of neutron, nucleon and atom. Proposed the impact of neutrinos on origin of gravitation.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
Interrelation between gravitation and acts of nature is deemed as a hard proof that the Earth gravitation is a predominant fact in this cohesion. Neutrino flow pressuring towards the Earth center on its way is forming difference abnormal zones within atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. As a result we are exposed to such natural disasters as earthquakes, volcanoes and climatic changes. Sufficient energy to such acts may be released only due to gravitation.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
Neutrino is considered the carrier of gravitation. Earth gravity is formed due to the central Earth core shielding all-penetrating neutrino flow. Neutrino penetrates the Earth interfering fusion reaction on the core surface of our planet and stops motion and pressuring. As consequence neutrino is facing gravity force forwarded to the center of our planet.
Catalog: Physics 
68 days ago · From Ualikhan Adayev
A new theory of electricity is needed, first of all, because the modern theory of electricity is built on a conduction current that does not exist in nature. And this paradox is obvious even to schoolchildren who observe currents with negative and positive charges on oscilloscopes. The modern theory of electricity is not able to clearly explain many of the mysteries of electricity. This article explains some of the mysteries that the modern theory of electricity could not explain.
Catalog: Physics 
71 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
The author of the article did not encounter a single source on the Meissner-Oxenfeld effect, where the version that this effect is explained by the presence of eddy currents in superconducting ceramics would be questioned. But, in the opinion of the author of the article, ceramics in such a state are surrounded by such gravitational fields, which, when cooled, turn into gravimagnetic fields, which, together with the gravimagnetic fields of the Earth, pull all the magnetic fields from the ceramics body.
Catalog: Physics 
93 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Two hundred years ago, Faraday received a current with negative and positive charges, which is distributed in the layer of ether adjacent to the conductor. The one who does not know this is not worth going into the theory of electricity. The discovery is based on the realization that in the theory of electricity there is no extraneous force, instead of which an electromotive force acts, formed by the difference in electrical potentials, between the zero potential of the conductor and the negative (or positive) potential of the current source. This difference in electrical potentials creates in the circuit the force of motion of the charges. The difference of electric potentials creates a force, which may well be called Coulomb force. And then it is not clear why it was necessary to invent an outside force.
Catalog: Physics 
162 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
According to our hypothesis, the conversion of electrons and positrons into each other occurs by replacing the charge motion vector with the opposite vector. This is explained by the fact that all elements of the electron's magnetoelectric system are opposite to all elements of the positron's magnetoelectric system. And this opposite is determined by the vector of their movement in space. Therefore, it is only necessary to change the motion vector of one of the charges to the opposite vector, so immediately this charge turns into its antipode.
Catalog: Physics 
215 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
ПОДВИГ В ХОДЕ ЭВАКУАЦИИ
Catalog: Military science 
229 days ago · From Libmonster Online
The article gives my short life story with a list of my discoveries. May the terrible moralists forgive me, I call these hypotheses discoveries because their logical connectedness and conformity with the materialistic dialectic of thinking does not allow to doubt that truth has been found here.
Catalog: Philosophy 
229 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov

ONE WORLD -ONE LIBRARY
Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.


Click here to create your own personal collection
SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES
 

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Libmonster ® All rights reserved.
2014-2019, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)


LIBMONSTER - INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY NETWORK