Libmonster is the largest world open library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

share the publication with friends & colleagues

O. I. SHKARATAN. Methodological Aspects of Research in the History of the Soviet Working Class

The article focusses attention on the expediency of singling out the history of the Soviet working class as an independent branch of historical knowledge and on the impermissibility of confusing the history of the working class with the country's history. The various problems of the history of the working class, the author stresses, can be examined in the following two aspects: 1) the working class as the "object" of history, i. e., the development of the working class itself in the process of the country's social transformation along socialist and communist principles; 2) the working class as the "subject" of history, i. e., the working class as the active and guiding force of social transformations, as a creative class. In conclusion the author emphasizes the significance of these aspects for research in the history of the Soviet working class.

M. S. DJUNUSOV. The Concept of Nation as a Socio-Ethnical Community of Men

The article puts forward and substantiates the concept of nation as a social and ethnic community of men, pointing out in this connection both the merits and shortcomings of the scientific definition of a nation given in J. V. Stalin's work "Marxism and the National Question."

The author maintains that there exists a whole system of ethnical communities of men. The tribe, nationality and nation are regarded as different types of an ethnical community. The article gives three new definitions of a nation. The following definition is based on the general visible sign of distinction between a class and a nation: nations are large groups of people which differ from one another by a stable community of language, national self-consciousness and specific national features of culture and character evolved in the process of the rise and development of both capitalist and socialist relations. As regards the general characteristic of the function and role played by the national community of men in social life, the author proposes a new definition: nations are forms of social development intrinsic to capitalist and socialist society, each of which represents socio-ethnical organisms. With a view to specifying the role and place of a nation in the system of ethnical communities of men, the author gives the following definition, a nation is the highest form of the ethnical community of men that has evolved on the basis of both bourgeois and socialist social relations. The article contains a survey of Soviet literature devoted to the theoretical definition of the concept of nation and indicates ways and means of further elaborating and enriching this theory.

V. M. KHOLODKOVSKY. Was Moscow Set on Fire by Napoleon?

Drawing on authentic Russian sources, the author convincingly proves that Moscow was set on fire by the Russians. Before leaving the city Field-Marshal Kutuzov and Moscow's Governor-General Rostopchin ordered to remove all fire-extinguishing facilities and destroy all military equipment and food supplies to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. The warehouses were set on fire and munition dumps blown up. It was these first sparks that set off a conflagration, whose rapid spread was facilitated by the predominance of wooden buildings, hot weather, strong wind and complete absence of fire-extinguishing equipment. However, guided by political considerations, the Russian government and the army command officially accused Napoleon of setting fire to Moscow. In actual fact Napoleon was interested in keeping the city intact and ordered his troops to put out the fires. The burning of Moscow could only place Napoleon at a disadvantage politically, economically and militarily. If the Russian government rejected his peace proposals, he planned to station his troops in Moscow and spend the winter there in order to make preparations for resuming hostilities towards spring. The conflagration thwarted these plans. The article shows how and why there appeared the legend about French "arsonists," refuting the patently wrong assertions, based on inaccurate quotations from original sources, that Napoleon, Clausewitz and other participants in the events admitted that the French were guilty of committing arson on the eve of Napoleon's retreat.

стр. 219

G. S. MATVEYEVA. The Rise and Development of the Working Class in the Mongolian People's Republic

Examining the role of the proletariat in the historical destinies of the former underdeveloped countries that have won through to national independence, the author graphically shows on the example of Mongolia's non-capitalist development the possibility of adopting this path without the existence of a national working class. Among the chief conditions required for a country's transition to the non-capitalist path is the support from the victorious socialist revolution and the existence of a party expressing the fundamental interests of the working masses. In this case the function of the worker-and-peasant alliance can be performed at a definite stage by the peasants' alliance with the international working class. But the working people's struggle for socialism can be headed only by their own, national working class, whose formation takes place at the first stage of the revolution, the stage of solving the tasks' of the non- capitalist path of development. Drawing on a wealth of Mongolian sources, the author reveals the process of formation of the Mongolian working class, which ensured the gradual development of the revolutionary-democratic dictatorship of the working people into the dictatorship of the working class.

E. V. GUTNOVA. Certain Problems of Peasant Ideology in the Middle Ages

Drawing on West-European historical sources, the author examines certain inadequately investigated problems concerning the ideology of the medieval peasantry. Interpreting "peasant ideology" as the entire complex of socio-political, religious, ethical and esthetic views typical of the medieval peasantry, the author briefly surveys a wide range of diverse sources which can be used for comprehensive investigation of the problem. Maintaining that the spiritual life of the medieval peasantry was not confined exclusively to a definite world outlook, the author shows that in the process of its development as a class, the peasantry was formulating its ideological views and class consciousness ever more distinctly. The principal stages in the evolution of the peasants world outlook from the early to the late medieval period are examined in close context with changes in the status of the peasantry, in the character and objective aims of its class struggle. This process of theoretical understanding very often assumed the form of religious mysticism. While recognizing this generally known fact, the author convincingly shows that the general religious form concealed opposite social tendencies and the acute ideological struggle between two different ideologies - that of the peasantry and of the ruling feudal-Catholic class. The author's viewpoint in this respect is directly opposed to the views of bourgeois historians, who regard the religious form as evidence of the harmonious unity of medieval culture.

V. M. LAVROVSKY. The Subject Matter and Method of History as a Science

Regarding history as a science investigating the objective laws of social development, interpreting social phenomena as belonging to the natural historical process, and recognizing the specific character of natural science, on the one hand, and the phenomena of social life, on the other, the author stresses that, despite these specific features, they are investigated by one and the same scientific method. Any attempt to delimit or contrapose natural sciences to sociology (history in the narrow sense of the term) according to method of research is logically and scientifically unfounded. At the present time, the author believes, the problem of unity of the scientific-historical method (in the narrow sense) and the method of natural- historical knowledge has become particularly acute and requires urgent elaboration by historians and philosophers.



Permanent link to this publication:

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Libmonster OnlineContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster:

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

SUMMARIES OF MAJOR ARTICLES // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 14.10.2017. URL: (date of access: 29.11.2020).

Found source (search robot):


Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
  • There are no comments yet
Libmonster Online
New-York, United States
349 views rating
14.10.2017 (1142 days ago)
0 subscribers
0 votes

Related Articles
Реликтовое излучение можно рассматривать как элементарные волны возмущения эфирной среды, фотонов и гравитонов, состоящих из микроэлементарных частичек - реликтов и фононов, которые являются квазистабильными частицами, не распадающимися на более мелкие частицы.
Catalog: Physics 
2 days ago · From Джан солонар
Борьба в Континентальном конгрессе США по вопросам внешней политики в 1778-1779 гг.
Catalog: History 
37 days ago · From Vasia P.
Согласно физикам XX века некакого времени «самого по себе». Нет времени, которое существовало бы без связи с тем, что происходит в физическом мире. Время всегда и везде выступает не «вообще», а конкретно — в каждом данном физическом явлении оно свое. Это именно то время, которое длится в ходе данного явления в данном месте пространства
Catalog: Physics 
129 days ago · From Джан солонар
Three insidious errors crept into the theory of electricity, turning electricity into a mystery that the best minds of mankind cannot solve. The first mistake is so insidious that the best minds of mankind state: "this cannot be." Meanwhile, maybe. The currents do not run inside the conductors, but around them. The second error follows from the first, because inside the conductors not currents are formed, but free electrons that form resistance for conduction currents. The third error is the fact that conduction currents are carried out not only by electrons, but also by positrons.
Catalog: Physics 
144 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
This note proves that currents in metal conductors do not propagate inside the conductors, but around them. For the first time, this revolutionary idea was expressed by Fedyukin Veniamin Konstantinovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences: “the current of electric energy is not the movement of electrons, the carriers of electricity are an intense electromagnetic field that propagates not inside, but mainly outside the conductor” (2).
Catalog: Physics 
148 days ago · From Gennady Tverdohlebov
Физическое пространство определяет психосоматические свойства человека – его воздействие исходно, однозначно и поэтому как бы и не замечается. Между тем, в меру развития цивилизации, человечество создает собственное, дополнительное к нему пространство, «вложенное» в физическое – социальное. Оно дуально – и продуцируется человеком, и продуцирует его как личность. Социальное пространство также прямо не замечается и воспринимается опосредованно, однако, уже потому, что оно «своё». Каким же тогда в нынешнем мире «порядка и хаоса» должно быть социальное пространство, вводящее человека в «царство свободы» – цивилизацию нового социализма – и каков путь к нему?
Catalog: Philosophy 
149 days ago · From Alexander Ralchuk
Отрицательный результат, т. е. несовпадение теоретических и экспериментальных данных возникло вследствие того, что распространение лучей исследовалось на основе классических законов движения материальных тел.
Catalog: Physics 
170 days ago · From Джан солонар
В некоторых литературных источниках, встречается выражение о распространении световых лучей, т.е. электромагнитных волн, относительно эфира. Но ведь эфир это общее понятие, окружающее нас, системы отсчета, источники электромагнитного излучения и т.д. Поэтому, очевидно, и при распространении электромагнитной волны светового сигнала ,также необходимо указывать относительно какой системы отсчета движется этот сигнал .
Catalog: Physics 
170 days ago · From Джан солонар
Эфирная среда обладает свойствами, аналогичными свойствам газовой среды, то есть плотностью, вязкостью, молекулярным весом, газовой постоянной, теплоемкостью и т.д. В связи с чем, эфир, наподобие воздушной среды, должен состоять из частиц обладающих определенными свойствами. Причем, реликты и фононы имеют соответственно отрицательные и положительные электрические заряды.
Catalog: Physics 
170 days ago · From Джан солонар
Атмосферы планет определяются величинами «постоянных», коэффициентов, Больцмана и Планка и все физические процессы, происходящие на этих планетах или вблизи них, должны протекать при разных значениях физических констант но, очевидно, по одним и тем же физическим законам
Catalog: Physics 
170 days ago · From Джан солонар

Libmonster is a free tool to store the author's heritage. Create your own collection of articles, books, files, multimedia, and share the link with your colleagues and friends. Keep your legacy in one place - on Libmonster. It is practical and convenient.

Libmonster retransmits all saved collections all over the world (open map): in the leading repositories in many countries, social networks and search engines. And remember: it's free. So it was, is and always will be.

Click here to create your own personal collection

Support Forum · Editor-in-chief
Watch out for new publications:

About · News · Reviews · Contacts · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Libmonster ® All rights reserved.
2014-2020, LIBMONSTER.COM is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)