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S. DIMITRIYEVICH. The Great October Revolution and the Revolutionary Movement in the Southern Slav Territories (1918 - 1920)

The article traces the influence exerted by the Great October Socialist Revolution on the development of the revolutionary processes in the emerging Southern Slav state, on the fusion of the various isolated streams of the socialist movement into a single organization. The author examines in particular detail the process of crystallization of the Marxist trend in the country's socialist movement, the struggle of the nascent Communist organizations for converting the socialist movement into the Communist movement, and for transforming the Yugoslav Socialist Labour Party (Communists), formed in 1919 as a result of the merger congress, into a genuinely revolutionary Communist Party of the Marxist type. The author analyzes the objective and subjective difficulties and mistakes which hampered the progress of the Yugoslav peoples' revolutionary movement and which had to be overcome in order to enable the Yugoslav Socialist Labour Party (Communists) to become a genuine leader of this movement, to secure its transformation into the Communist Party of Yugoslavia which proved capable of guiding the Yugoslav people to victory and to the conquest of power in the years of the second world war.

A. M. ANDREYEV. The Local Soviets and the State Council

Drawing on a number of new materials furnished by state and Party archives, the author elucidates certain aspects of organizing the counter-revolutionary revolt headed by General Kornilov, of the bourgeoisie's attempts to establish a military dictatorship by "peaceful means" and liquidate the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. Of much interest is the information on the attitude of the local Soviets to the so-called State Council-the rallying centre of the counter-revolutionary forces. The article examines the attitude to the Soviets of diverse political parties-the Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks and the Socialist-Revolutionaries, as well as of the bourgeois- domocratic organs of self-government (provincial administrative assemblies, municipal councils, etc.). The author, draws the conclusion that the mass manifestations organized by workers and soldiers during the State Council's session in Moscow (August 12 - 15) prevented the establishment of the military dictatorship in the opening days of August 1917. The factual data cited in the article convincingly shows that in the early days of August 1917, i. e., long before the Kornilov revolt, many local Soviets already held firm revolutionary positions and followed the Bolsheviks.

V. I. ZOLOTARYOV. The Main Stages in the Development of Soviet Foreign Trade

The article examines the principal stages in the development of the Soviet Union's foreign trade relations from the very first days following the establishment of Soviet power. The author graphically shows that in the very first years after the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution the young Soviet Republic, overcoming the economic blockade instituted by the imperialist countries, was making the best possible use of foreign trade channels to obtain the most important types of raw materials, industrial equipment, transport facilities and manufactured goods from other countries, which contributed to the rehabilitation of the national economy devastated by the war and foreign military intervention and helped to avert the famine caused by the 1921 crop failure in certain areas of the country. The article highlights the efforts made by the Communist Party under V. I. Lenin's guidance to extend the range of countries maintaining trade relations with the Soviet state and to monopolize foreign trade in the teeth of the fierce

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resistance of the enemies of Soviet power inside the country and abroad. Much attention is devoted in the article to illustrating the important role of foreign trade in carrying out the far-reaching programme of socialist industrialization and agricultural collectivization mapped out by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in completely eliminating the country's technical and economic dependence on the capitalist world.

Considerable attention is devoted by the author to the development of Soviet foreign trade since the emergence of the socialist world market which accounts for nearly 70 per cent of the Soviet Union's foreign trade turnover. In conclusion the author dwells on the main tasks set out by the Twenty-Third CPSU Congress in the sphere of foreign trade.

V. G. SARBEY and E. S. SHABLIOVSKY. N. I. Kostomarov in Karl Marx's Historiographic Heritage

The authors analyze an important question concerning Karl Marx's creative laboratory in the field of investigating diverse aspects of Russia's history-Marx's study of N. I. Kostomarov's works. The factual material from Kostomarov's monograph "The Northern Russian Democracies" and other works found a definite reflection in certain remarks made by Karl Marx in his "Chronological Notes."

Much attention was devoted by Marx to Kostomarov's "Stepan Razin's Revolt" (1858), which enjoyed wide popularity among progressive-minded elements of Russian society. The fact that Marx made a detailed conspectus of this work irrefutably proves that the leader of the international proletariat attached paramount importance to research in the history of the greatest peasant war in Russia. In the process of summarizing the rich factual material contained in this work, Marx drew important conclusions aimed at overcoming definite limitations and schematism of Kostomarov's conception. The most radical features and elements of Kostomarov's works did not escape Marx's attention. The authors believe that there are no valid grounds whatever for counterposing Marx's conspectus to Kostomarov's work, as is done by certain Soviet historians. In conclusion the authors point out that Marx made the best possible use of Kostomarov's works highlighting the historical past from democratic positions by borrowing from them all the finest and progressive ideas with the aim of enriching the revolutionary theory of the international proletariat.

K. I. LEBEDEV. The Foreign Policy of Rumania's Bourgeois-Landlord Ruling Element (1932 - 1937)

The world economic crisis of 1929 - 1933 led to the sharp aggravation of class contradictions in Rumania and powerfully stimulated the revolutionary struggle of the Rumanian working masses. The crisis of the bourgeois system and the resultant fascization of the country's political life had their impact on the Rumanian government's foreign policy, which is closely analyzed by the author on the basis of archive materials. Following the resignation of N. Titulescu, who tried to achieve a rapprochement with the U.S.S.R. and to bring Rumania into the Franco-Soviet- Czechoslovak alliance, there occurred a radical turn in Rumania's foreign policy. Having completely abandoned the policy of alliance with the Soviet Union, the Rumanian rulers weakened the system of collective security and helped to strengthen the positions of Hitler Germany. Rumania's foreign policy acquired a clearly pronounced dual character: side by side with promoting closer relations with Germany, the Rumanian government tried to prevent deterioration or severance of relations with the Western Powers. This dual policy was undermining the country's international positions and was fraught with the danger of isolation. The author examines in detail the economic and political factors which determined the development of Rumania's foreign policy at that period.

M. I. KOVALSKAYA. The Italian Carbonari and the Progressive Sections of Russian Society

Drawing on archive materials, the author shows the influence exerted by the Italian revolutions of the 1820's on Russia's progressive social thought. Much attention is devoted by the author to analyzing the reaction caused by the Carbonari movement among the different sections of Russian intellectuals-from the liberals, who sought to replace the autocratic system in Russia by the constitutional monarchy, to the future participants in the December uprising. Analyzing the forms of organization and programmatic documents

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of the Russian secret societies of that period and comparing them with the organization and political demands of the Carbonari, the author draws the conclusion that they had many features in common. Considerable attention is devoted in the article to personal contacts between Russian and Italian revolutionaries, to the attitude of the Russian creative intelligentsia to the Italian revolution.

A. I. GORYACHEVA. Psychic Make-Up as an Indication of a Nation

The author makes an attempt to prove that the national psychic make-up is an indication of a nation as a social entity, an indication, moreover, which possesses maximum stability and continues to exist when one or another ethnic community or its individual representatives lose other indications.

The national psychic make-up represents a complex combination of such elements as national character, habits, tastes, customs and traditions, with the national character constituting the most essential element. The peculiar psychic make-up of different nations is evolved in the course of generations as a result of the whole complex of specific conditions of existence of each individual nation-social, political, geographic, external, national interrelations, etc. Among all these conditions, the chief role belongs to the economic, factors. Any attempt to deny or underestimate the significance of psychic make-up as an indication of a nation can actually result in underestimating the complexity and difficulties arising in multi-national collectives. Recognition and proper account of the national psychic make-up is an indispensable condition for the continued perfection of national interrelations.

Orphus

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