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N. N. DYOMOCHKIN. V.I. Lenin on the Republic of Soviets as a Form of Socialist Statehood

Analyzing the teaching of Marx, Engels and Lenin on the essence of a state founded on the dictatorship of the proletariat, the author graphically shows that the Republic of Soviets was discovered by Lenin as the best and most expedient state form of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the conditions of Russia. The article highlights Lenin's teaching on the essence and peculiarities of the Republic of Soviets, its fundamental distinction from the bourgeois parliamentary democratic republic, describes the victory of the October Revolution and the establishment of the proletarian state, the national-political structure of the Republic of Soviets, the further development by V. I. Lenin of the principles of socialist state development, the main directions of the activity of the Communist Party and its relations with the Soviets and other state and public organizations of the working people, and dwells on the international significance of the experience gained by the Republic of Soviets.

V. G. TRUKHANOVSKY, Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The Leninist Foreign Policy in Action

Reviewing the recently published two-volume edition of "A History of Soviet Foreign Policy," the author analyzes topical problems of the Soviet Union's Leninist foreign policy consistently pursued over the past fifty-odd years - from the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution up to 1970 inclusive. The author shows the fundamental distinction of Soviet foreign policy effected for the first time in human history in the interests of the toiling majority from the foreign policy of capitalist states which serves as an instrument of defending the interests of the exploiting minority. Whereas the foreign policy of the capitalist powers is aimed at furthering expansion, aggression, preparation and unleashing of wars of aggrandizement, establishment of military blocs and intensification of the armaments drive, the foreign policy of a socialist state is designed to create favorable conditions for the building of socialist society and is utterly alien to all attempts at enslaving and exploiting other peoples, to striving for aggression and war. Much attention is devoted in the article tu characterizing two basic foreign policy principles formulated by Lenin, namely, socialist internationalism and peaceful co-existence of states with differing social and economic systems. The author dwells on a number of other theoretical problems of international relations and foreign policy, and highlights the practical implementation of the Leninist foreign policy principles in the international activity of the Soviet Union and the other countries of the socialist camp.

L. S. GAPONENKO and V. B. TELPUKHOVSKY. The Leading Role Played by the Soviet Working Class in the Building of Communism

The article makes a point of stressing that by carrying out a victorious socialist revolution for the first time in mankind's history, ensuring the complete and final victory of socialism in its country and building a developed socialist society, the Soviet working class brilliantly confirmed by its practical experience the correctness of the Marxist-Leninist thesis concerning the world-historic mission devolving on the working class, its leading role in effecting deep-going revolutionary transformations. The authors show that the leading role of the working class under socialism follows from the objective social position of this class and is determined by the very nature of its social interests. The leading role of the working class finds its most concentrated expression in the guiding, organizing and directing activity of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The article points out that the most important conditions for consolidating the leading role of the working class are its all-round internal development, the heightening of the creative, labour and socio-political activity of the workers, their ideological maturity, class consciousness, educational, cultural and technical level, their growing participation in the administration of public, and state affairs.

стр. 221


V. M. KURITSYN. The Problems of Democracy and Legality in the Early Years of NEP

The article is devoted to analysis of the question concerning the role of codification of the law, judicial reform, institution of the procurator's office and counselors-at-law in the early 1920's and provision of adequate legal guarantees of the elementary rights and freedoms of Soviet citizens. Drawing on his analysis of new archive data, the author highlights some of the little-studied aspects of the problem and substantiates the conclusion that the rise and development of socialist legality (including more reliable guarantees of the rights of citizens) reflected the general process of stabilization of Soviet power and extension of Soviet democracy with the transition to NEP. The formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the adoption of the Soviet Constitution in 1924 consummated the process of establishing a harmonious system of Soviet justice and enforcement and strict observance of socialist legality, whose basic features have remained unchanged to this day.

E. F. KOVALYOV. The Rise and Development of the Maoist Views

The article is directed against Maoist historiography which is trying hard to make out that Mao Tse-tung faithfully adhered to orthodox Marxism-Leninism from the very beginning of the Communist movement in China. Tracing the development of Mao Tse-tung's ideological and political views from 1923 to 1949, the author comes to the conclusion that Mao Tse-tung's "ideas" have nothing in common with Marxism- Leninism. The founder of these "ideas" joined the ranks of the Communist movement not as a Marxist-internationalist but as a petty-bourgeois revolutionary with his characteristically broad amplitude of fluctuations to the Right and "Left" from scientific socialism.

Completely disregarding the very essence of Marxism-Leninism - the teaching on the liberating mission of the proletariat, the guiding and directing role of the working class and its party in the radical reorganization of society, Mao Tse-tung, as is graphically shown in the article, asserted the revisionist, nationalistic line in the Communist movement of China. The author discloses the genetic connection of the revisionist and nationalistic line pursued by the present Peking leaders with Mao Tse- tung's opportunist conceptions which he championed long before the victory of the people's revolution in China.

V. S. YAHYA. The Foreign Policy Factors of Ethiopia's Development in the Contemporary Period

Owing to such permanently operating factors as the socialist world system and the national-liberation movement, Ethiopia since the mid-1950's became transformed from a country serving predominantly as the object of imperialist policy into the subject of international relationships. This, the article under review states, is a cardinally important positive shift in its foreign policy status throughout the contemporary period. The neocolonialist offensive launched by the imperialist powers against Ethiopia in the 1960's - 1970's is marked by essential distinctions from the colonialist actions undertaken by Britain, France and Italy in the prewar period. The influence exerted on Ethiopia by imperialism at the present time is markedly weaker than it used to be in the old days. The socialist world system, the author writes in conclusion, has become a potent guarantor of Ethiopia's political independence.

A. N. CHISTOZVONOV. The Fate of Early Capitalism in the Republic of United Provinces

Drawing on extensive factual material and statistical data, the author shows the main stages of the Netherlands economic progress latent in the capitalist development of this country which began in the 16th century with the triumph of the bourgeois revolution. The revolution cleared the road for those forms of bourgeois progress which enabled the Republic of United Provinces to gain preponderance in the world market, expand trade, finances, navigation and commodity production. But the dominant position held by the conservative and cosmopolitan merchant class, the protracted absence of any headway from the attained level of economic development which no longer corresponded to the requirements of European society, the defeat suffered in the struggle with Britain which carried out a more radical bourgeois revolution brought the N etherlands to stagnation which subsequently was followed by a decline. There occurred a change of leaders in the European relay-race of bourgeois development, and the expenses involved quite naturally had to be defrayed by the vanquished party.

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CONTENTS

of the journal "Problems of History" No. 4, 1972.

Articles: N. N. Dyomochkin. V. I. Lenin on the Republic of Soviets as a Form of Socialist Statehood; V. G. Trukhanovsky, Corresponding Member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The Leninist Foreign Policy in Action; L. S. Gaponenko and V. B. Telpukhovsky. The Leading Role Played by the Soviet Working Class in the Building of Communism; V. M. Kuritsyn. The Problems of Democracy and Legality in the Early Years of NEP; E. F. Kovalyov. The Rise and Development of the Maoist Views; V. S. Yahya. The Foreign Policy Factors of Ethiopia's Development in the Contemporary Period; A. N. Chistozvonov. The Fate of Early Capitalism in the Republic of United Provinces. Reminiscences: Lieutenant General A. A. Vetrov. Volunteers of Freedom. Historical Essays: B. F. Livchak. The Collapse of the Plans to "Protect" Moscow from the Revolution; Y. V. Yegorov. The Stavissky Affair and the Fascist Putsch of February 6, 1934, in France. Historical Science in the U.S.S.R. and Abroad. Surveys: A. A. Chernobayev. The Russian Federation's Committees of Poor Peasants in Contemporary Soviet Historiography; The 14th International Congress of Byzantine Researchers. Book Reviews: "Practical Implementation of the Leninist National Policy Among the Peoples of the Fa." North"; B. M. Kolker and I. E. Levit. Rumania's Foreign Policy and Rumanian-Soviet Relations (September 1939-June 1941); A. N. Tsamatuli. The Democratic Trend in Russian Historiography of the 1860's- 1870s; A. M. Mirkind. Under the Banner of the Commune. German Social- Democracy in the Struggle Against Reaction and Militarism; Liam De Paor: Divided Ulster (London), etc. Lellers and Notes. Facts, Events, People. Notes on articles published in foreign journals; articles in Soviet and foreign historical journals; new books in the U.S.S.R. and abroad.

Orphus

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