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V. P. ELYUTIN. The Development of Higher Education in the Years of Soviet Government

The article examines the main stages in the development of higher education in the years of Soviet power. The author stresses that the Soviet higher school has imbibed all the finest and progressive elements that existed in the pre-revolutionary system of higher education; at the same time, the Soviet system of higher education is, essentially, a fundamentally new system based on the outstanding achievements of the Soviet socialist system. V. P. Elyutin brings out the democratic character of the Soviet system of higher education. He closely examines the development of the leading branches of science in the Soviet higher school and analyzes the distinctive features of the Soviet pedagogical and scientific research process in higher educational establishments. In conclusion the author dwells on the tasks facing Soviet higher education in the period of transition from socialism to communism.

E. M. STEIERMAN. The Problem of Structural Analysis in History

The founders of Marxism-Leninism repeatedly stressed the need of examining society as an integral system, of studying the deep-lying determinative connections intrinsic to it, of going beyond the establishment of purely mechanical relations between cause and effect. Only in this way is it possible to disclose both the general historic and specific laws and regularities intrinsic to every society, to trace the paths and limits of its development. The elaboration of a systemic-structural method of social analysis from positions of historical materialism - a method which by no means coincides with structuralism as a definite trend in bourgeois historico-philosophical thought-is dictated by the need of comprehending the factual material accumulated by historians, working out a typology of the social systems indispensable for establishing the interconnection between the general and the particular, and making a deeper analysis of the causal connections. Marxist researchers see the best and most effective way of solving these questions in a systemic-structural analysis of social wholeness, which explains the results of the impact made by one or another factor on such wholeness and its sub-systems, depending on their structure. The greatest difficulty in this connection consists in establishing the structure-forming element and the type of connections characteristic of the given system. The author proposes to regard the forms of property determining the type of production relations as the basis of the structure-forming element. Proceeding from the structural analysis of certain aspects of the socio-economic and ideological life of the ancient world, the author comes to the conclusion that the study of causality determined by the structure of the given system opens far broader prospects than the simple cause-and-effect relation.

L. M. IVANOV. The Autocracy and the Working Class: Certain Aspects of the Tsarist Government's Policy

The author makes it abundantly clear that the Russian autocratic government represented the interests of the ruling classes and shaped its policy on the labour question accordingly. It required a long period for the labour policy of the autocratic regime to develop into a system of definite views and legislative acts. L. M. Ivanov makes

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a point of stressing that the government's reglementation of the ugliest aspects of factory life pursued far-reaching political aims: to allay labour's resentment, weaken the influence of revolutionary propaganda and persuade the masses that the autocracy was their friend and benefactor.

Both the adoption of factory legislation and the harsh repressive measures were prompted by the mounting labour movement. The whip-and-carrot policy followed from the very nature of Russia's political system. The policy of the autocratic regime was directed against the working class, its chief aim being to maintain and perpetuate the existing social order. In conclusion the author writes that the government's policy failed to achieve the desired results. The working-class movement continued to grow and to assume an increasingly pronounced political character.

L. V. MILOV. Concerning the "Agrarian Towns" in 18th-Century Russia

The historical literature devoted to the Russian feudal town of the I7th-18th centuries, in the author's opinion, is marked by a patently indistinct approach to the concept o; "agrarian town." There is a clearly expressed tendency to place in this category any towns lagging behind in industrial development and handicraft production. Yet in the period of late feudalism among the so-called agrarian towns there arose a group of towns which differed widely from the ordinary type of undeveloped agrarian town. Predominating in this group were small towns of the Central Industrial Area. Their specific feature lies in the fact that they sharply differ from the traditional land-tilling and farming occupations characteristic of agriculture, which, at first glance, they seem to duplicate. Truck-farming and fruit-growing were extensively developed in the towns comprising the Central Industrial Area. These branches of production, the author maintains, should be regarded as urban occupations rather than agricultural ones, since truck-farming and fruit-growing in the peasant economy were natural in character and played a purely subsidiary role. This brings the author to the conclusion that so-called suburban farming in Russia remained undeveloped for a fairly protracted period owing to the strong competition offered by the small towns. Suburban farming began to grow rapidly only in the period of developed capitalism.

I. I. ZHIGALOV. The U. S. Aggression in Vietnam and Great Britain

America's imperialist aggression in Vietnam presents the most serious threat to universal peace in present-day conditions. It has sharply complicated the entire international situation and hampers the solution of cardinal international problems.

The British government's policy of supporting the U.S. aggression in Vietnam is encountering mounting resistance from the country's progressive forces. The article examines the socio-political processes and the new phenomena that have emerged in recent years in the internal political life and political struggle in Britain in connection with the U. S. aggression in Vietnam. The author closely analyzes the country's official foreign policy line, the position of the main political parties, parliamentary and business circles, national and industrial trade unions. The article makes a point of stressing that the growing opposition in Britain to the U. S. aggression in Vietnam is of great international significance as a factor contributing to the spread of anti- imperialist and Left sentiments in Britain.

Z. V. UDALTSOVA. Soviet Byzantine Research: Certain Results

The author characterizes the principal stages of the rise and development of Marxist research into Byzantine history and culture in the U.S.S.R. The article analyzes the most important works produced by Soviet scientists in connection with the elaboration of the cardinal problems of Byzantine research. The author's attention is focussed on the following problems: Byzantine agrarian system, Byzantine towns, Byzantium's relations with the countries of Western Europe and the East, with the Slav states and the Rus, with the peoples of Transcaucasia and the Crimea. At the same time, the article outlines the main problems still awaiting solution, which are of the utmost importance for the further development of Byzantine research: the interrelations between town and country in Byzanti-

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um, the history of the Byzantine town in the later stages of development, the typology of Byzantine feudalism, the state and law in Byzantium, Byzantium in the system of international relations in the medieval period and Byzantine diplomacy, Russian- Byzantine and Slav-Byzantine relations, Byzantium and the Caucasian peoples, the history of Byzantine ideology, social thought and culture. Particular stress is laid on the need of developing auxiliary subjects and the publication of sources, especially the valuable manuscripts from Soviet collections. The author emphasizes the importance of applying new methods of research in Byzantine history and culture.

N. K. STRELKOVA. Discussion on the Theory of Nation: Review of Unpublished Materials

The discussion on the theory of nation launched by our journal has aroused a keen interest among scientists and the public at large, as is graphically shown by the numerous letters received by the editors from all parts of the country. Some of them examine the concept of nation as a whole, others dwell on individual indications of a nation, types of nations and other aspects of the problem. The article briefly surveys the most important views and opinions expressed in these letters.

Orphus

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