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O. V. MARTYSHIN. Democracy and Non-Capital Development in Africa

The article examines the African ideologists' conceptions of democracy and. certain aspects of the political systems existing in African countries, as well, as the criticism to which they are subjected in Western bourgeois literature. The author focusses attention on the experience of the countries which have pronounced in favour of socialist orientation. The most characteristic features of these countries are their renunciation of the bourgeois system and bourgeois democracy, the conception of democracy primarily as the method of effecting profound social transformations. The article notes the essentially progressive character of the countries adhering to the socialist orientation, at the same time emphasizing the serious contradictions intrinsic to them, which permit to use certain elements, of the political system that has become traditional for present-day Africa not only in the fight against imperialism and reaction but also to the detriment of the progressive forces.

Lieutenant-General K. F. TELEGIN. The Part Played by the Moscow Military Area and the Moscow Defence Zone in Organizing the Defence of the Soviet Capital

The article is devoted to the 30th anniversary of the great victory scored by the Red Army in the Battle of Moscow. An active participant in the defence of the Soviet capital in the autumn of 1941, the author examines a large number of literary works highlighting the mass heroism and courage displayed by the defenders of Moscow, the devoted labour effort of the men and women working in the rear, the guiding role of the Communist Party in organizing a fitting rebuff to the enemy in the Battle of Moscow, and sheds ifght on what he considers to be one of the less known and inadequately investigated aspects of this great and important theme-the part played by the Moscow Military Area and" trie Moscow Defence Zone in defending the Soviet capital. The author vividly tells how the Moscow Defence Zone was established and how it carried out the tasks it was confronted with. The article cites numerous examples of peerless courage and heroism displayed by the gallant defenders of Moscow-rank-and-file soldiers, commanders and political functlo naries of the Moscow Defence Zone-in the period Of tense defensive battles fought on the approaches to the Soviet capital.

стр. 220


E. P. IVANOV. Pre-Revoiulionary Russian and Soviet Historiography of Agrarian Overpopulation

The article closely examines the factors that determined the interest shown by Russian pre-revolutionary and petty-bourgeois historiography in the problem of agrarian overpopulation. The main part of the article is devoted to research works produced by Soviet scientists. Side by side with critically analyzing the concepts of Russian pre- revolutionary and petty-bourgeois historiography, the author shows the difficulties experienced by researchers in investigating the theme, the gradual overcoming of petty-bourgeois, Narodist, Socialist-Revolutionary-Menshevik views in interpreting agrarian overpopulation, the spread and triumph of the genuinely scientific, Marxist conception of this problem whose solution in our country was closely associated with implementing the policy of the country's industrialization and reorganization of agriculture along socialist lines. In conclusion the author puts forward certain considerations concerning the tasks and directions of further research into the subject, stressing the international significance of the Soviet Union's experience in liquidating agrarian overpopulation-an experience testifying to the advantages inherent in the socialist path of development.

A. P. ZINOVIEV. The Struggle of the Russian Young Communist League Against the Avant-Garde Tendencies in the Communist Youth International (1919 - 1921)

The article highlights the role played by the Soviet Young Communist League in the struggle to overcome the avant-garde tendencies in the Communist Youth International, which found expression in the attempts of individual leaders of the Communist Youth International and its Sections to undertake independent political actions in complete divorcement from the Communist International and the Communist parties. The author graphically shows that the concepts and actions of the avant-garde proponents led to divorcement from the masses and hampered the efforts to win over the overwhelming majority of working youth to the side of communism. As a result of extensive explanatory work carried out in 1919 - 1921 by the Central Committee of the Russian Young Communist League with the support of the Executive Committee of the Communist International and with the aid of V. I, Lenin, the adherents of the avant-garde trend among the youth acknowledged their mistakes and renounced their erroneous views. The Third Congress of the Communist International and the Second Congress of the Communist Youth International (June- July 1921) were keynoted by the triumph of the Marxist-Leninist principles of exercising Party leadership of the youth movement and by the adoption of the Leninist line of struggle for united working-class action, for the implementation of- the united front tactics.

R. BRIUL. German Imperialism's Military Preparations for Launching a Perfidious Attack on the Soviet Union

The article examines diverse aspects of the military preparations carried out by the nazi aggressors with the aim of launching a brigand attack on the U.S.S.R. In the course of their aggression against the U.S.S.R. the nazis planned total destruction of the Soviet social and political system, the conversion of Soviet people into the meek slaves of their Reich. A prominent part in implementing these aims was assigned to the military who elaborated barbarous methods of warfare against the Soviet state. The author sheds light on those pages from the history of Germany's military assault on the Soviet Union which are grossly falsified by reactionary bourgeois historians or are interpreted by them as an exceptional case typical only of the fascists, whereas in actual fact they are typical of imperialism in general.

стр. 221


N. A. YEROFEYEV. British Colonial fsm and the Stereotyped Portrait of the African at the Close of the 19th Century

Drawing on extensive factual material, including books, newspaper and magazine articles and travel notes written by English travellers, missionaries, officials and businessmen, the author re-creates the ideas and notions prevailing in Britain about the African continent and the peoples inhabiting it, who were depicted as savages absolutely alien to civilization and incapable of ever attaining it. Such absurd inventions had their roots in the fact that during that period Britain was poorly acquainted with the African peoples and did not understand the peculiarities of their culture and mode of life. But the actual cause of spreading such fables should be sought in the predominant features of English bourgeois ideology of that period- colonialism, Eurocentrism and racialism; which made the overwhelming majority of Britons firmly believe in their superiority over other peoples. Theauthor shows how these preconceived notions and erroneous views served the interests of British colonial policy.

Orphus

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