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A. M. SOKOLOV. The Soviet-German Front and the War in the West (December 1944- January 1945)

The concluding stage of the Second World War crowned with the crushing defeat of Nazism set in forty years ago, in January 1945. Following the 1944 spectacular Soviet victories the Soviet- German Front remained the main war theatre which exerted a tremendous influence on the course of events in the West. The article gives a detailed account of the situation in Europe on the eve of the concluding battles of 1945. It demonstrates the close connection between the hostilities on the Soviet-German Front and in the West in late 1944 and early 1945 when the Allied Command had to repulse the German counter-offensive and to plan the concluding operations of 1945. His research has brought the author to a conclusion that the military-political situation just before the final stage of the war in Europe started was shaped, primarily, by the great victories of the Soviet Armed forces.

V. L. EGOROV. The Russian-Golden Horde Boundary in the 13th and 14th Centuries

Written and archaeological sources permit us to trace and determine more precisely the border between Rus and the Golden Horde. In the 13th century there existed specific buffer zones between the two states in which the Russian population was administered by the Mongols. Such zones formed individual patches along the borderline rather than an uninterruped chain. In the 14th century they disappeared. The borderline had become more clear-cut with its individual sections being fixed in princes' wills and treaties. The Golden Horde territory shrank in that period to give way to Russian posessions, especially in the southern forest regions on the northern bank of the Oka. The chronicles testify, on the whole, not only to the stricter delimitation between the Russian state and the Golden Horde which had been completed by the late 14th century but to the protection by the Russians of their borders as well.

V. P. ALEXEYEV. Corresponding Member, USSR Academy of Sciences. Palaeoanthropology and History

The article dwells on the primary role of palaeoanthropological data where reconstruction of the physical make-up of the earliest people is concerned. They can fruitfully be used for dating ethnogenetic processes occurred both in the Neolithic and in the late Middle Ages. The comparison between palaeoanthropological data and contemporary anthropological findings makes it possible to determine the direction of genetic inheritance. Similar comparisons conducted regionwise contribute to the reconstruction of migration tides and the assessement of their scale. The author has convincingly demonstrated that palaeoanthropological materials, can be regarded as an important auxiliary historical source The more ancient the epoch under study the greater the role of palaeoanthropological data. This is especially true of the earliest stages of the history of mankind prior to the appearance of writing.

S. L. AGAEV. Sharp Turns of the Iranian Revolution

This is a concise account of the inner political struggle in Iran from January 1978 to the present day, of its main stages and the driving forces. The author shows the place of individual events in the overall revolutionary process in the country. He defines the period which followed the victory of the anti-monarchist and anti-imperialist February 1979 revblution as a gradually deepening crisis, as a revolutionary process developing in a descending line. It reached its culmination in February-May 1983 when the religious leadership dealt a crushing blow at the left forces and opened the way to bourgeois counter-revolution. The governing circles completely switched to the capitalist development previously carefully camouflaged by the Islamic-Populist slogans.

V. F. KOLOMIITSEV. Home Policy of the Fifth Republic (1969 - 1981)

The article lays bare the levers used by the state to manipulate economy in the interests of the big capital, it shows the forms assumed by the "parallel power" of the bourgeoisie in the state and the measures used to suppress the working-class movement.

The author points to a certain split in the ranks of the bourgeoisie which develops alongside stronger dictatorship of monopolist bourgeoisie between 1969 and 1981. It manifested itself, in particular, in the fact that petty and partly middle bourgeoisie, having discovered that their interests did not coincide with those of the big capital, sided with the left parties during election campaigns.

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I. I. LESHCHILOVSKAYA. Culture of the Enlightenment in Central and South-East Europe

The Enlightenment is a specific stage of cultural development caused by the capitalist development within the framework of the feudal structure and the emergence of a nation. In the region under review this process occurred in the latter half of the 18th century though its temporal framework vary from country to country. The culture of the ascending capitalist society was marked by a new class content, a manifestation of which was the emergence and development of bourgeois world outlook, shaping the national entity, more frequent contacts with alien cultures, and shifts in mass consciousness. The peoples of the region had produced a special kind of the culture of the Enlightenment. Its historic significance was determined by the necessity to prepare society to the transition to capitalism and to solving the task of national liberation.


"Problems of History", No. 1, 1985

Artiсles: A. M. Sokolov. The Soviet-German Front and the War in the West (December 1944-January 1945); V. L. Egorov. The Russian-Golden Horde Boundary in the 13th and 14th Centuries; V. P. Alexeyev. Palaeoanthropplogy and History; S. L. Agaev. Sharp Turns of the Iranian Revolution; V. F. Kolomiitsev. Home Policy of the Fifth Republic (1969 - 1981); I. I . Leshehilovskaya. Culture of the Enligntenment in Central arid South-East Europe. Historical Essays: A. A. Preobrazhensky. "Caring for the Motherland.. .", E. L. Nitoburg. Grenada: Washington's Big Lie arid Robbery. Historical Science in the USSR and Abroad. Surveys: E. M. Zagovalova. Problems of the History of State Farms in Latest Works (1975 - 1984); M. L. Korobochkin. Problems of the History of the Second World War in "The Journal of Modern History". Book Reviews: Zheltova G. I. Historiography of the Socialist and Communist Construction in Soviet Uzbekistan (1930 - 1970); Essays on the History of the Trade Unions in the Ukrainian SSR; A. M. Pankratova. Russian Working Class. Selected Works; E. V. Soboleva. Organisation of Science in the Post-Reform Russia; E. G. Istornina. River and Sea Routes in Russia Between the Latter Half of the 18th and Early 20th Century; Cooperation of Public Organisations of the Socialist Countries; Yu. V. Borisov. The USSR and France: 60 Years of Diplomatic Relations; I. B. Levin. The Working Class Movement in Italy. 1966 - 1976. Problems and Trends of the Strike Struggle; O. Kodedova. Popular Movement and Response to the First Russian Revolution in the Czech Lands in 1905 - 1907 (Prague); Notes on Books. Facts, Events, People. Articles in Soviet and Foreign Historical Journals. New Books in the USSR and Abroad.


de la revue "Questions d'histoire", n o l, 1985

Articles: A. M. Sokolov. Le front soviéto-allemand et les opérations militaires à l?Occident (décembre 1944-janvier 1945) ; V. L. Egorov. La frontière entre la Rous' et la Horde d'or aux XIII e -XIV e siècles; V. P. Alexéev. La paléoanthropologie et Fhistoire; S. L. Agaev. Les zigzags de la revolution iranienne ; V. F. Kolomyitsev. La politique intérieure de la V e République ( 1969 - 1981 ) ; I. I. Léchtchilovskaïa. La culture des Lumières en Europe centrale et du Sud-Est. Aperçus histоriques. A. A. Préobrajenski. "Gardant en mémoire sa Patrie... ; E. L. Nitobourg. Grenade: le grand mensonge et le brigandage de Washington. La science historique en U.R.S.S. et à l?étranger. Revues: E. M. Zagovalova. Problemes de l?histoire des sovkhozes vus par les publications contemporaines (1975 - 1984); M. L. Korobotchkine. Problèmes de l?histoire de la Seconde Guerre mondiale dans la revue "The Journal of Modern History". Comptes rendus : G. I. Jeltova. L'historiographie de l?édification socialiste et communiste de l?Ouzbékistan soviétique (1930 - 1970) ; Précis d?histoire des syndicate de la R.S.S. d?Ukraine; A. M. Pankratova. La classe ouvrière de Russie. Œuvres choisies; E. V. Soboléva. L'organisation de la science dans la Russie d'après réforme ; E. G. Istomina. Les voies fluviales de Russie dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe-debut du XIXe siècle; La coopération des organisations sociales des pays du socialisme ; You. V. Borissov. L'U.R.S.S. et la France : 60 ans de relations diplomatiques ; I. B. Lévine. Le mouvement

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ouvrier en Italie. 1966 - 1976. Problèmes et tendances de la lutte gréviste ; O. Kodédova. Le mouvement populaire et l'écho de la première révolution russe dans les terres tchèques en 1905 - 1907 (Prague) ; Brèves notices sur les livres. F a i t s, événements, h о rn m e s. Articles dans les revues historiques soviétiques et étrangères. Nouveaux livres en LLR.S.S. et à l?étranger.


revista "Cuestiones de historia" No. 1, 1985

Artiсulоs: A. M. Sokolov . El frente soviético-aleman у las operaciones militares en Occidente (diciembre de 1944 у enero de 1945); V. L. Egorov . Frontera entre Rus у Horda de Oro en los siglos XIII у XIV. V. P. Alexéev . La paleoantropologia у la historia; S. L. Agaev . Los zigzags de la revolucion irani; V. F. Kolomiitsev . La politica interior de la Quinta Republica (1969 - 1981); I. I. Leschilovskaia . La cultura de la Ilustracion en Europa Central у Sudeste. Ensауоs historiсоs: A. A. Preobrazhenski . "Recordando su Patria..."; E. L. Nitoburg. Granada: una gran mentira у el bandolerismo de Washington. Ciencia historica en la URSS у en exterior. Resumenes: E. M. Zagovalova . Problemas de historia de los sovjoses en la literatura contemporanea (1975 - 1984); M. L. Korobochkin . Problemas de historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en la revista "The Journal of Modern History". Resenas : G. I. Zheltova. Historiografia de la edificacion socialista у comunista de Uzbekistan sovietico (1930 - 1970); Ensayos de historia de los sindicatos de la RSS de Ucrania; A. M. Pankratova. La clase obrera de Rusia. Obras escogidas; E. V. Soboleva. Organizacion de la ciencia en Rusia despues de la reforma; E. G. Istomina. Vias fluviales de Rusia en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII у comienzos del XIX; Colaboracion de las organizaciones sociales de paises socialistas; Yu. V. Borisov. La URSS у Francia: 60 anos de relaciones diplomaticas; I. B. Levin. Movimfento obrero en Italia. 1966 - 1976. Problemas у tendencias de la lucha huelguistica; O. Kodedova. Movimiento popular у ecos de la primera revolucion rusa en tierras checas en 1905 - 1907 (Praga); Resumiendo libros. Hechos, sucesos, hombres. Articulos en las revistas historicas sovieticas у extranjeras, Nuevos libros en la URSS у en el exterior.



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