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E. N. GORODETSKY. Lenin's Method of Historical Research

Lenin's works are used by the author to illustrate his approach to historical facts, their analysis and the establishment of their interdependence, which is of great methodological importance for the historian in mastering the methods of objective scientific research. In this context, the author discusses Lenin's method of analysing statistical and other sources, and the role of artistic images in Lenin's works. Lenin skilfully used statistical data which were for him a scientific instrument in studying the past and present, while an artistic image was an organic part of his argumentation, an element of the historical and sociological synthesis.

V. I. KASYANENKO. Social Thought of the 1920s on the Consolidation of the Socialist Way of Life in the USSR

The article deals with the history of the formation of social thought in the first half of the 1920s on the Soviet socialist way of life. Through an analysis of Lenin's works, official documents and extensive literature on the subject, the author reveals some regular patterns in the complicated development of views on and conceptions of the new way of life, and their contradictory nature in the initial stage of the transition from capitalism to socialism. V. Kasyanenko dwells on the contribution made by Soviet social scientists to overcoming anti- scientific theories and recommendations on transformation of the customs, morals, ideals and the way of life inherited from the past and to the elaboration of a realistic programme of creating a new, socialist way of life based on scientific communism. .The author shows the role of the Communist Party, its congresses, conferences and CC plenums in the theoretical substantiation of such programme. The historiography of the national and the international aspects of the socialist way of life is discussed in some detail. This is especially interesting in the context of the forthcoming 60th anniversay of the USSR.

Kh. A. KHIZRIEV. Timur's Invasion of the Northern Caucasus and the Battle of the Terek River

The story of the famous battle between two Oriental conquerors, Timur and Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde. Both were hated by the people of the region as cruel feudal oppressors. The military action and diplomatic moves that led up to the battle, its course, duration, the strength of the armies and their losses, the causes behind the Horde's defeat and its consequences are analysed by the author. His conclusion is that the conquerors had inflicted irreparable damage to the cultural and economic life of the North Caucasian peoples slowing down their development and causing a sharp decline of the population.

Yu. V. IRKHIN. The Vanguard Revolutionary Parties of the Working People in the Newly Free Countries

Basic historical forms, regularities and specifics of the formation and consolidation of the vanguard revolutionary parties in the newly free Afro-Asian countries are all analysed and discussed on the basis of materials of the 1970s and 1980s. Much attention is paid to regular patterns and specific features of the shift of revolutionary- democratic forces to the positions of scientific socialism. The author examines the criteria of the vanguard revolutionary parties and the possibility of their further transformation into Marxist-Leninist parties.

Yu. E. IVONIN. Western Europe and the Ottoman Empire, the Second Half of the 15th to the 16th Centuries

A searching study of political and other relations between the West European states and the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries and the causes of their deterioration.

This, the author says, was brought about by the widening gap in the levels of socio-economic development of the leading West European states and the Ottoman Empire, which became particularly evident in the period of disintegration of the military-fief system in the latter and by the new alignment of forces in Western Europe in the second half of the 16th century. This resulted in the gradual subordination of the Ottoman -Empire to West European interests.

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CONTENTS

"Problems of History", No. 4, 1982

Articles: E. N. Gorodetsky. Lenin's Method of Historical Research; V. I. Kasyanenko. Social Thought of the 1920s on the Consolidation of the Socialist Way of Life in the USSR; Kh. A. Khizriev. Timur's Invasion of the Northern Caucasus and the Battle of the Terek River; Yu. V. Irkhin. The Vanguard Revolutionary Parties of the Working People in the Newly Free Countries; Yu. E. Ivonin. Western Europe and the Ottoman Empire, the Second Half of the 15th to the 16th Centuries. Historical Essays. Yu. S. Uralsky. How the Lenin "Iskra" was Brought into Russia; I. S. Rybachenok. Unity of Interests and the "Entente Cordiale". Historical Science in the USSR and Abroad. Surveys: V. T. Pashuto, Corresponding Member, USSR Academy of Sciences. Mediaeval Russia in the "Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas". Book Reviews: A. V. Ushakov. The Struggle for Unity of the Russian Working Class. (How Lenin and the Bolsheviks Worked to Consolidate the Proletariat); L. M. Zak. Studies in Soviet Culture; B. A. Kolchin, A. S. Khoroshev, V. L. Yanin. The Home of a 12th-Century Novgorod Painter; N. Yu. Lomouri. On the History of the Pontus; V. P. Chugaev. The Struggle Against Fascism and the War Menace (Internationalist Solidarity of the Polish and West Ukrainian Working People Against the Onslaught of Fascism and the Growing War Danger. 1933 - 1939); A. Blanck. German Prisoners-of-War in the USSR; A. F. Shulgovsky. The Army and Politics in Latin America; Problems of the Genesis of Capitalism. The 7th International Congress on Economic History in Edinburgh, 1978; Philip H. Burch, Jr. Elities in American History. The New Deal to the Carter Administration. Holmes and Meier Publishers (New York-London). S. Striegnitz. Deutsche Internationalisten in Sowjetrussland 1917 - 1918. Proletarische Solidaritat im Kampf um die Sowjetmacht. Akademie-Verlag. Scientific Notes. Facts, Events, People. Articles in Soviet and Foreign Historical Journals. New Books in the USSR and Abroad.

SOMMAIRE

de la revue "Questions d'histoire", n o 4, 1982

Articles: N. E. Gorodetski. Le laboratoire léninien de la recherche historique; V. I. Kassianenko. La pensée sociale des années 20 sur la formation des normes socialistes de la vie en U.R.S.S. ; Kh. A. Khizriev. L'invasion de Timur dans le Caucase du Nord et la bataille sur le Terek; You. V. Irkhine. Les partis révolutionnaires d'avant-garde des travailleurs dans les pays affranchis ; You. E. Ivonine. L'Europe occidentale et l'empire ottoman dans la seconde moitié du XV e - XVI e siecle. Apercus historiques. You. S. Ouralski. Les éléments de clandestinité dans les activités de "L'Iskra" léniniste; I. S. Rybatchenok. L'union des intérêts et l'"Union des coeurs". La science historique en U. R. S. S. et a l'étranger. Revues: V. T. Pachouto, membre correspondent de l'Académie des Sciences de l'U.R.S.S. La Russie médiévale vue par la revue "Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas". Comptes rendus des livres : A. V. Ouchakov. La lutte pour l'unité de la classe ouvriere de Russie (L'activité de V. I. Lénine et des bolcheviks visant la cohésion du prolétariat); L. M. Zak. L'histoire de l'étude de la culture soviétique; B. A. Koltchine, A. S. Khorochev, V. L. Yanine. La propriété d'un peintre novgorodien du Xll e siecle; N. You. Lomohouri. Contribution a l'étude du royaume de Pont; V. P. Tchougaïev. Dans la lutte contre le fascisme et le danger de guerre. De l'histoire de la solidarité internationaliste des travailleurs de Pologne et d'Ukraine occidentale dans la lutte contre l'offensive du fascisme et l'aggravation du danger de guerre. 1933 - 1939; A. Blank. Les prisonniers de guerre allemands en U.R.S.S. ; A. F. Choulgovski. L'armée et la politique en Amérique latine; Problemes de la genese du capitalisme. A l'occasion du VII e Congres international d'histoire économique a Edimbourg en 1978 ; Ph. H. Burch. Les élites dans l'histoire américaine (De la "nouvelle ligne" a l'administration de Carter) (New York-Londres); S. Striegnitz. Les internationalistes allemands dans la Russie soviétique. 1917 - 1918. La solidarité prolétarienne dans la lutte pour le pouvoir des Soviets (Berlin). Notes scientifiques. Faits, événements, hommes. Articles dans les revues historiques soviétiques et étrangeres. Nouveaux livres en U.R.S.S. et a l'étranger.

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