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A S. PAVLOV . Local Soviets in the Period of the Development and Consolidation of Socialist Society (1946 - 1961).

The author analyses the reorganisation and further democratisation of local Soviets in the post- war years, basing his analysis on Communist Party and Soviet Government decisions, statistical and archival materials and published works. The post-war years witnessed the activisation of the Soviets, with the broad masses more closely involved in the management of society and the state. This period saw the emergence of new forms in the work of the Soviet representative organs, forms widely used in the period of developed socialism and formalised in the 1977 USSR Constitution.

R. V. FILIPPOV. The Programme of the "Land and Freedom" Society of the 1870s.

The "Land and Freedom" ("Zemlya i volya") society of the 1870s was one of the major organisations of revolutionary-propagandist Narodism. Basing the analysis of its programme on Lenin's proposition about the correlation between Narodism and anarchism, the author concludes that the foundation of the organisation's theory, programme and tactics was not the Bakunin anarchist doctrine, but the integral system of the revolutionary-democratic and Utopian socialist views of Herzen and Chernyshevsky which found expression in the programme documents of the first "Land and Freedom" society and its leaflets of the 1860s.

The author demonstrates that the programme was strongly influenced by the complex evolution of the revolutionary Narodist ideology on a number of questions. It undermined the integrity of the Narodist theory, and signified a shift from the political indifference of its predesessors-the revolutionary propagandists of the first half of the 1870s- to recognition of the political struggle, which was a step forward in the theoretical and practical development of the Russian liberation movement.

M. A. ALPATOV. The Varangian Question in Russian Pre-revolutionary Historiography.

The Norman theory of the origin of the Old Russian State is seen by the author as a reflection of the political struggle in the literature of the nobility and bourgeoisie. This theory, progressive for its time, was enunciated in the 18th century by historians of the academic school Bayer, Miller and Schlozer. Its tendentious character and disregard for the popular struggle against the Normans were revealed by Lomonosov and Tatishchev. Further polemics between the Normanists and anti-Normanists were conducted within the framework of nationalist and monarchist ideas, the theory thus acquiring official status. It was opposed by Belinsky, Shakhmatov and Klyuchevsky, who demonstrated its fallacy and unscientific character. Soviet historians are true to the finest traditions of Russian historiography in resolving the problem of the origin of Russian statehood.

A. A. SHEVYAKOV. Soviet-Rumanian Relations and Nicolae Titulescu.

An account of Soviet-Rumanian relations in 1931 - 1936 seen against the background of the German and Hungarian expansionist drive against Rumania and the slide into the Second World War. Titulescu, the then Rumanian Foreign Minister, who sought good-neighbour relations with the USSR, was removed and Rumania headed towards unity with the Nazis.

I. SEVOSTYANOV. The US in World Politics in mid-1970s.

An evaluation of foreign policy of the Ford Administration as a whole and in major areas (relations with the USSR, the allies, the developing countries, activity in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa). As the Republica! rule was ending the US started its move* away from the policy of relative accomodation with world realities towards a more activist search of American hegemony. This tendency progressed in later years and ultimately brought Washington to its present posture of the most destructive force in international relations.

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I. A. SVANIDZE. The Agrarian Policy of the South African Colonialists .

The author shows that the agrarian structure of South Africa is characterised by the division of the country into white settlement area, where modern production is consentrated, and African reserves with primitive subsistence agriculture, and land hunger. The article describes the history of land disposession of the indigenious population by white colonialists. The agrarian laws imposed by the racist authorities are aimed at consolidating and intensifying land disposession, racial discrimination and segregation in land holding and land usage.

CONTENTS

"Problems of History", No. 5, 1982

Articles: A. S. Pavlov . Local Soviets in the Period of the Development and Consolidation of Socialist Society (1946 - 1961); R. V. Filippov . The Programme of the "Land and Freedom" Society of the 1870s; M. A. Alpatov . The Varangian Question in Russian Pre-revolutionary Historiography; A. A. Shevyakov . Soviet-Rumanian Relations and Nikolae Titulescu; I. Sevostyanov . The US in World Politics in mid-1970s; I. A. Svanidze . The Agrarian Policy of the South African Colonialists. Reminiscences. Leutenant-General Engineer A. A. Vetrov . The Matchless T-34 Tank. Historical Essays: T. S. Niku-lina. The 1408 - 1416 Lublin Uprising. Historical Science in the USSR and Abroad. Surveys: V. G. Sarbey . The Study of Historical Materials Published in Pravda prior to October 1917; N. V. Sivachev . The 96th Congress of the American Historical Association. Book Reviews : From Capitalism to Socialism. Major Problems of the History of the Transitional Period in the USSR. 1917 - 1937. Vols. 1 - 2; G. N. Topuzlu. Assistance of the Fraternal Union Republics to the Moldavian Agriculture (1940 - 1958); The 1622 Uprising in Moscow; The 1682 Uprising in Moscow; The 1698 Uprising of Moscow Streltsy (linvestigatory Materials). Collection of Documents; The USSR-the GDR. 30 Years of Relations. 1949 - 1979. Documents and Materials; Essays on the History of Cuba; V. S. Myasnikov. The Tsin Dynasty and the Russian State in the 17th Century; V. O. Pechatnov. The US Democratic Party: Voters and Politics; G. V. Tsipkin. Ethiopia: from Disintegration to Political Centralisation (second half of the 19th-early 20th centuries); Klassenkampf und revolutionise Bewegung in der Geschichte RuSlands. Von den Anfängen bis zur Oktober- revolution. Studien und Aufsätze, Berlin; A. Pelinca, Sozialdemokratie in Europa. Macht ohne Grundsatze oder Grundsatze ohne Macht? Wien-Munchen. A Letter to the Editors. Facts, Events, People. Articles in Soviet and Foreign Historical Journals. New Books in the USSR and Abroad.

Orphus

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