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I. L. ANDREYEV. Karl Marx on the Laws Governing the Development of the Commune

The article analyzes a summary made, by Karl Marx when reading a book by M. M. Kovalevsky, a Russian sociologist, entitled "Communal Landownership: The Causes, Progress and Consequences of Its Disintegration". Marx's approach to this work from the viewpoint of dialectical materialism enabled him to disclose more fully the role and place of the commune in world history, to single out the objective stages in the evolution of the tribal commune towards the family and, later, the rural commune, to determine the influence exerted on this process by the socio-economic environment and to come very close to the idea of the intrinsic dualism of the commune. The author subjects to a detailed examination Marx's conclusions concerning the laws governing the process of differentiation of primary social ownership in accordance with breaking up the relations of tenure, ownership and disposal as stages in the formation of private ownership of land.

L. E. FAIN. The Development of Consumers' Cooperatives in the Soviet Union's National Republics and Regions (1923-1929)

The article examines the general and specific features of implementing Lenin's co-operative plan in the national areas of the U.S.S.R. with the creation of the appropriate conditions there for the full-scale building of socialism. The author's attention is focussed on the following questions: elaboration of the general principles governing the development and organizational structure of national co-operative societies; ways of strengthening Party influence in co-operative societies and methods of training national cadres of co-operative workers; ways and means of drawing the indigenous population into co-operative societies; adaptation of existing forms of the co- operative movement to the local conditions and the peculiarities attending the transition from simple to complex forms; accelerating the rate of development and heightening the economic role of national co-operative societies. The policy of the Communist Party in the sphere of promoting the co-operative movement, of correctly choosing the main trends of its further development, the author writes, enabled the peoples of the national fringe areas, whose initial levels differed widely, to lay the groundwork towards the close of the 1920's for the decisive stage of radical socialist transformations. Under the guidance of the Party they succeeded, almost simultaneously with the peoples of the central parts of the country, in building up the prerequisites and effecting the transition to the socialist relations of production in the countryside within a relatively brief historical period.

G. I. LITVINOVA. Protection of Mother and Child in the U.S.S.R.

The author highlights the main historical and legal trends and forms of protecting mother and child in the U.S.S.R.. at the same time drawing attention to a number of problems which require further study and await their solution. The author shows the role played by V. I. Lenin in carrying out a number of important measures to protect children in the early years following the victory of the socialist revolution, the unflagging concern shown by the CPSU and the Soviet state for the all-round development, upbringing and education of the rising generation, emphasizing the international recognition of the fact that the principles proclaimed by the United Nations Organization in the Declaration of Rights of the Child have found their consummate embodiment in the Soviet reality.

Army General V. F. TOLUBKO. The Soviet Army's Internationalist Mission in Rumania

The article notes that the ties of friendship binding the Rumanian people with the peoples of our country were formed way back in the period of their joint struggle against the Ottoman conquerors. Having inflicted a crushing defeat on fascism in the second world war, the Soviet Union, at the cost of heavy sacrifices, rendered immense assistance to the people of Rumania in their national and social liberation. Towards the end of the war the Rumanian troops took part in the struggle against the nazi aggressors. The fellowship-in-arms of the Soviet and Rumanian forces was forged and tempered in the course of their joint struggle, the author writes in conclusion. The blood shed in this struggle by the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and Rumania sealed the bonds of their friendship.

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V. T. PASHUTO, V. I. SALOV. Anti-Communism In West-German School Textbooks

The article notes that while the newly published series of secondary-school textbooks in the F.R.G. have discarded a number of frankly revanchist pronouncements and outwardly appear to present the material in a different form, they essentially continue to remain permeated with the ideas of anti-communism and contain a bobtailed and far from accurate information about our country, especially as regards the postwar period of its history. Among these textbooks one can single out "Politik und Geschichte. Grundfragen und Probleme der modernen Welt". Bd. 2, Frankfurt/Main, 1976, as containing more objective information.

T. V. LAVROVA. Soviet-American Relations and the 1976 Elections in the U.S.A.

The author examines the approach of different circles in the U.S.A. to the problem of Soviet- American relations, which was manifested with particular clarity during the Presidential election campaign of 1976. The article contains a detailed analysis of the struggle between different trends in the Republican and Democratic parties around the problem of relations with the U.S.S.R. at the various stages of Presidential elections and characterizes these parties' programmes on the given issue.

Orphus

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