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L. M. DROBIZHEVA. Culture and Relations Between Different Nations and Nationalities in the U.S.S.R.

The article is devoted to the interconnection of interpersonal national relations with the various components of culture: ideology, education, professional art and common traditional culture. Drawing on the results of sociological investigations carried out in several constituent republics of the U.S.S.R. between 1971 and 1976, the author comes to the conclusion about the dominant role played by the socio-political and socio-economic conditions in the relations between the different nations and nationalities inhabiting the multi-national Soviet Union. Among all the other factors of culture particular importance is attached to the role of ideology and the spread of education (especially among the population groups belonging to the lower-skilled categories). The common traditional culture exerts its greatest influence on international relations in the family sphere.

A. K. BIRON. The Working People of Latvia in the Struggle for Soviet Power

The article re-creates the situation that arose in the Baltic provinces at the end of 1918 and in 1919, examines the alignment of the class forces, highlights the revolutionary struggle waged by the working people of Latvia, the liberation of Latvian territory from the German invaders and the establishment of Soviet power in the Baltic area. These events are examined in close connection with the situation that took shape in all parts of Russia. The author describes the activity of the Soviet government in Latvia and underscores the historic significance of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. The article analyzes the treacherous policy of the Latvian bourgeoisie, shows its dependence on the imperialists of Germany and the Entente powers, and tells about the intervention of the leading imperialist states in the Latvian people's internal affairs.

A. A. KUDRYAVTSEV. The "Long Walls" in the Eastern Caucasus

As a result of the protracted and stubborn struggle waged by the people of Iran against frequent nomad incursions on the western shore of the Caspian Sea at the time when the country was ruled by the Sassanid dynasty, there gradually took shape a system of "long" defensive walls which protected Iran's northern border. The opinion that prevails in a number of literary works is that the walls were erected stage by stage, in strict chronological sequence, as the Iranians advanced from the south to the north. However, this opinion has been disproved by the archeological research carried out in Derbent in recent years. It has now been established that it was not the southernmost fortifications that formed the first "long" wall, but the adobe fortifications of Derbent built in the first half of the 5th century. The stone fortifications at Beshbarmak, Ghilginchai and Derbent were erected in the first half of the 6th century.

M. T. MESHCHERYAKOV. The People's Army of the Spanish Republic

The article highlights the main stages of the rise and development of the Spanish Republic's people's army during the civil war of 1936 - 1939, the specific features attending its formation, the role of the Spanish Communist Party in creating a regular anti-fascist army, the adverse influence exerted on its unity by the internal contradictions that arose within the Popular Front. The author also shows the place and role of the international brigades in the Spanish people's struggle against fascism and traces some of the causes which led to a split in the people's army at the concluding stage of the war and ended in its defeat.

V. A. SHMAROV. The Aegean Conflict

The article examines the substance and specific features of the Greco-Turkish contradictions arising out of a dispute over the right to the waters, the air space and the continental shelf of the Aegean Sea. These contradictions create a seat of tension in the Eastern Mediterranean and present a threat to peace and security. The U.S. and NATO imperialist circles skilfully exploit the Greco-Turkish friction to strengthen their positions in this area and to draw Greece and Turkey more securely into the orbit of

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"Atlantic policy". The armaments race imposed on these countries from without tends to breed suspicion and distrust between them, thereby hampering normalization of international relations in this region.

Y. I. IGRITSKY. Bourgeois Sovietology in the Contemporary Struggle of Ideas

The article highlights some of the distinctive features and tendensies of contemporary Western Sovietology as an integrated branch of bourgeois ideology which enlists the services not only of historians but also of representatives of other social sciences, primarily political ones. One of the most salient features that distinguish the works of contemporary Sovietologists is a close combination of the methods of historical and political sciences. The author graphically shows how closely the Sovietologists' activity is connected with bourgeois politics which is aimed at undermining the process of detente and at keeping international tensions alive. At the same time the article notes the changes that have taken place in the Sovietologists' views and conceptions owing to the utter failure of the policy of rabid anti-communism and anti- Sovietism.

Orphus

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