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N. N. YAKOVLEV. The Year 1939: Looking Forty Years Back

Drawing on his careful assessment of the latest American and British historic- graphical works pertaining to the subject discussed in the article, the author makes an attempt to show how the Western "balance of strength" policy at the close of the 1930's encouraged Hitler's aggression and led to the second world war.

Academician A. L. NAROCHNITSKY. The Basic Trends of Research in Russian and Soviet History at the Present Stage

The article highlights the main trends of scientific elaboration of different problems of Russian and Soviet history in the U.S.S.R., including the history of the oldest societies and states which existed on the territory of our country; the feudal and capitalist formations; the history of the working class, the peasantry and the intelligentsia; the three Russian revolutions, primarily the Great October Socialist Revolution; the building of socialism; the drawing together and promoting the florescence of the socialist natrons in the new historical community of people; problems of developed socialism; historical prerequisites and significance of the new Constitution of the U.S.S.R., etc. The author underscores the achievements of Soviet scholars in carrying out scientific investigations in many different fields and in solving important scientific problems, at the same time outlining the new tasks facing them in the sphere of scientific elaboration of Russian and Soviet history.

V. A. TSYBULSKY. The U.S.S.R. Nizhegorodsk Fair

The article sheds light on the role assigned to the U.S.S.R. Nizhegorodsk Fair in promoting intensive trade relations between town and country, between socialist industry and agriculture, as well as with the Eastern countries. The Fair served as a channel for directing a rational flow of goods from industry to the multimillion peasant masses; it helped to promote economic cooperation and emulation between trading partners from diverse social sectors of the national economy. It reflected to a certain extent the state of the country's domestic market, ascertained its capacity and requirements, facilitated state trade organizations to form contacts with consumers' cooperatives and privately-owned trading establishments, exerted a regulating influence on the development of commodity circulation and the movement of prices. By 1930, when the system of centralized planning embraced practically the whole sphere of exchange in the country, the socio-economic role of the Fair had been exhausted, and it was liquidated.

R. G. SKRYNNIKOV. The Preparation and Start of Yermak's Siberian Expedition

The article aims at defining more precisely the time of the first Siberian expedition undertaken by the Cossacks headed by Yermak. Drawing on his close study of 16th- century documents and new archive records, the author convincingly proves that, contrary to the generally accepted view, the campaign could not take place in 1582. A more accurate definition of the chronology of the campaign and the existence of more detailed information on its participants and organizers make it necessary to reconsider many important questions linked with the history of Yermak's Siberian expedition.

M.Y. DOMNICH Evolution of the Christian Trade Union Movement

The article examines the main trends of development of the international Christian trade union association - the World Confederation of Labour (former International Confederation of Christian Trade Unions). The author comes to the conclusion that in our

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time of the deepening general crisis of capitalism, more and more believers among the working people are being drawn into the class struggle to fight jointly with progressive-minded contingents of the working class, while some of the unions affiliated to the World Confederation of Labour are taking an active part in the struggle against monopoly domination and against imperialism.

D. P. URSU. The Emergence of National Historiography in Tropical Africa

The article discusses a number of topical methodological problems concerning the; emergence of national historiography in Tropical Africa known as the "decolonization of history". The birth of modern historical science in the newly independent countries of sub-Saharan Africa is an event of great importance. The Africans are beginning to write their own history, as well as to create it as subjects. An impertant factor in the: struggle for social cohesion and national consolidation are the rehabilitation and a new interpretation of history. This paper is an attempt to examine the origins, evolution and periodization of modern African historiography as well as its methodological trends.

Orphus

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