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G. A. ALEXEYEV. The Beginning of Marxism's Ideological Struggle Against International Revisionism

The article examines the polemic in the international working-class movement at the turn of this century, when different approaches to revisionism began to manifest themselves within the orthodox wing of the Second International, which had condemned Bern-steinianism. Making a comprehensive analysis of the prognostications and general conclusions drawn by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, as well as of the conception of imperialism subsequently elaborated by V4 I. Lenin, the author convincingly refutes the revisionist fabrications alleging thai the revolutionary proletarian theory has lost its creative principles. Particular attention is devoted in the article to the critical analysis of revisionism given by Lenin, to his creative elaboration of problems connected with the revolutionary struggle of the proletariat in the conditions of imperialism.

I. I. PARFENOV. The Part, Played by the Population of Byelorussia's Polesye Region in the Military Operations Against the Nazi Invaders in the Summer of 1941

The article is based on documentary materials, literary works and reminiscences of direct participants in the events. The author shows the courage and heroism displayed by the working people of Polesye Region during the first months of the war in the conditions of the surprise attack launched by the nazi hordes, the efficiency of the local Party organizations and of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Byelorussia in mobilizing the available means and resources for administering a stern rebuff to the enemy. Particular importance is attached in the article to the organization of the people's volunteer detachments and to their close co-operation and joint struggle with Red Army units, which helped to thwart the plans of the Hitler Command to capture the Polesye Region and to reach the mouth of the Pripyat River within ten days.

I. S. DOSTYAN. V. F. Malinovsky's "European Utopia"

V. F. Malinovsky - the well-known Russian enlightener and democrat, the first director of the Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo - published a book in 1803 under the title "Discourse on Peace and War," the third part of which remained unpublished. The article analyzes the manuscript which contains a plan for the social and political restructuring of Europe. It is easy to detect elements of early Utopian socialism in Malinovsky's sociopolitical views. Proclaiming the right of every people to national freedom and self-determination, he put forward a plan for setting up a democratic Slav Federation and, hence, can well be regarded as an initiator of the idea of the Slav peoples' political unity.

N. A. SOBOLEVA. The Symbols of Russian Statehood

The author traces the history of the rise and development of Russian state symbolics during 1ihe late medieval period. The attention in the article is focussed on the state seal of 1497, on which for the first time there appeared emblems that subsequently formed the state emblem of Russia, An analysis of diverse written and material sources shows that the choice of emblems and their representation on the national state seal under Ivan III served as an important component part of the ideological doctrine asserting the ancient origin of the power wielded by the emperor of the whole of Russia, the succession of his rights and the equipollence of Russia to the monarchies of Western Europe, including the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.

E. V. KOVALEV. The Peasants of Latin America Fight for an Agrarian Reform

The article characterizes the objective economic and social factors which, in the conditions obtaining today, tend to intensiiy the struggle waged by the peasants in the Latin Amerifcan countries for an agrarian reform, as well as the chief forms and methods of this struggle. The author singles out the following principal forms of this struggle: petitions and resolutions; demonstrations and protest marches; strikes; seizure of land; armed struggle. The most important condition ensuring the success of the peasant move-

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ment is for the rural labourers to unite and form independent class organizations. As far as the proletariat is concerned, the policy of winning over the peasantry - its natural ally-is closely linked with the struggle for the far-reaching agrarian reform, which constitutes an important element of the whole complex of socio-economic transformations supported by the progressive forces of the Continent.

V. F. KOLOMIYTSEV. The Technocracy in the Fifth Republic

The progressive bureaucratization of social life is one of the means used by capitalism to adapt itself to the present-day conditions of the class struggle. A special, privileged place not only in the administrative apparatus but also in the political life of France is now occupied by the technocracy - those "specialists in general ideas" who administer the intricate links of the state mechanism practically without any control Side by side with the managers of big capitalist enterprises the technocrats form a new top stratum of the ruling class. The author shows how the technocrat cadres are recruited in France and what influence they exert on the social and political life of that country.

Orphus

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