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F. D. RYZHENKO. The Turning Point in the Russian and the International Working-Class Movement

The article highlights the momentous significance of the Second Congress of the R.S.D.L.P., at which, for the first time in the history of the proletarian movement, a new-type revolutionary party corresponding to the requirements of the struggle waged by the working class and all men of labour for their social and national liberation was founded by V. I. Lenin. The author brings out the main content of the Party Programme, and Rules adopted by the Congress, as well as the Congress decisions on tactical questions, graphically showing the international character of the Leninist Party and the historic significance of the experience gained by the CPSU in the 75 years since its establishment.

V. M. GRIDNEV. The Soviet Peasants' Struggle Against the Nazi Occupation Regime (1941 - 1944) and Bourgeois Historiography

The article critically examines the views that have taken root in bourgeois historiography concerning the occupation regime set up in the rural localities of the U.S.S.R. temporarily seized by the nazis during the Great Patriotic War and the attitude of the Soviet peasantry to the nazi-imposed regime. The author convincingly shows that, as a result of the profound changes effected in the country, by the early 1940's the Soviet peasantry constituted a new class boundlessly devoted to their socialist Homeland and to the Communist Party, which from the very outbreak of war rose to fight the fascist aggressors. The article examines the forms of struggle employed by the rural population in the temporarily occupied territories against the political and economic plans and measures elaborated by the nazi authorities. The day-to-day resistance put up by the peasants everywhere, the author writes in conclusion, was chiefly responsible for thwarting the nazi aggressors' agrarian policy.

N. SEVER. The Establishment and Activity of the World Zionist Organization in 1897-1914

The article traces the emergence of Zionism and the initial stage of its development. Side by side with analyzing the social basis of Zionism and the organizational structure of the World Zionist Organization (WZO), the author examines the main directions of its activity in 1897 - 1914 (excluding the "diplomatic" field). The class essence of Zionism as a bourgeois nationalist movement became clearly apparent already in the first stage of its existence. Already then the principal levers of Zionism (economic and financial institutions, political activity, mass information and propaganda media) were concentrated in the hands of the WZO central board. The bourgeois nature of Zionism was also manifested in the colonization work conducted by the WZO in Palestine, where the Zionists furthered the interests of Jewish employers who ruthlessly exploited the Jewish poor and the Arab population. Already at that time the reactionary nationalist essence of Zionism, which was annexing the Arab lands in Palestine with the help of its economic institutions, became obvious to all.

S. A. NIKITIN. Russia and the Liberation of Bulgaria

The author makes an attempt to show the liberation of Bulgaria not only as a result of the diplomatic struggle and armed conflict, but also to ascertain the social contacts binding the two peoples beginning with the 1820's, and the role played by the social movement in this outstanding event. The developments of the Eastern crisis of the 1870's and of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 are examined by the author both from the viewpoint of development of the Balkan peoples' struggle for national liberation and from the aspect of international politics. The concluding part of the article is devoted to the activity of the Russian provisional civil administration in Bulgaria, which in an amazingly short period set up a new Bulgarian administration on the basis of the government bodies existing in the country. The author comes to the conclusion about the peculiar character of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 as compared with the earlier armed conflicts owing to the participation in it of the broad mass of the Russian, Bulgarian and other peoples.

V. A. KREMENIUK, V. A. LUKIN. The Evolution of U.S. Asian Policy After World War II

The article traces the sources of the political course pursued by the U.S.A. in Asian countries, analyzing its evolution after the Second World War. The authors show how the class interests of U.S. monopoly capital predetermined the U.S. aggression in Korea (1950 - 1953) and in Indo-China (1961 - 1973). Against the background of the complex situation fraught with dangerous conflicts in this part of the world, Washington's moves to consolidate its positions, undermined by the defeat in Vietnam, led to the preservation of some flashpoints of tension, thus contributing to regional instability and to the emer-

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gence of new conflicts. The authors come to the conclusion about the need of combining the struggle for the further relaxation of tension in Soviet-American relations with all-out efforts to promote security in Asia, based on the joint endeavour of the states situated in this region.

M A. BARG. On the Nature of Feudal Property

The author proceeds from the existence of two aspects of the problem: inter-feudal and peasant-seignorial, or, in other words, the land monopoly held by a corporation of vassal co-owners headed by the supreme suzerain and the actual allotment of land to the tillers as the most important condition of social production at that period. Such an approach to the protlem by the author has made it possible to distinguish the substance of relations based or feudal ownership and the forms of manifestation of these relations, which turned out to be "transformed" that is, forms camouflaging and distoring the real state of things. The article makes a detailed analysis of the dialectics of "personal" and "real" elements in feudal ownership relations during the classic medieval period and the disintegration of the seignorial system.

Orphus

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