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L. V. MAKSAKOVA. The Role Played by Soviet Culture in the Victory Over Fascism

Examining the multiform problems of cultural life, the author dwells on the farreaching changes that have taken place in the cultural activity of the Soviet state, on the basic features characterizing the development of Soviet culture and its role in the achievement of victory over fascism. The article examines the most popular and all- embracing spheres of culture whose significance was particularly great in the solution of the ideological tasks posed by the war (the press and radio, social sciences, creative art and the functioning of diverse cultural and educational institutions). The author traces the process of restructuring the organizational forms of culture evolved in the years of socialist construction, the changes in the content and direction of creative activity that occurred in wartime condition, the specific features and distinctive traits attending the development of each particular sphere of culture examined in the article.

L. S. GAPONENKO, N. I. SURKOV. The Working Class as the Hegemon of the First Popular Revolution in Russia

Drawing on concrete historical material, the article graphically shows how the proletariat gradually assumed leadership of the revolution of 1905 - 1907. The authors trace the process of forging and consolidating the alliance of the working class and the peasantry. They vividly show how the influence of the working class on the revolutionary movement in the army was steadily gaining in strength and scope, how the working class determined the main direction of the revolution and advanced such effective forms of struggle as political strikes, demonstrations, barricade battles and the armed uprising. The multi-million peasant masses came forward as the natural and reliable ally of the proletariat in the revolution. Their joint struggle laid the groundwork for the unbreakable alliance of the proletariat and the peasantry which subsequently ensured the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Academician A. P. OKLADNIKOV. The Progress of Historical Research at the Siberian-Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences

The history of Siberia and of the peoples inhabiting it has long attracted the attention of researchers. Soviet historians have compiled and published a five-volume "History of Siberia."

The article highlights the work of historians carrying on research at the Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy organized and directed by the Siberian Branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The archeologists of this scientific institution have discovered the oldest monuments of human culture in Northern Asia dating back to the lower and the middle stages of the paleolithic period, investigated the peculiar cultures of the neolithic period from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean, and traced the distinctive cultures of the indigenous population as well as the latter's progress from the primitive commune to the formation of early states. Wide-scale investigations have been carried out in the history of Russian culture and its interaction with the cultures of other peoples and nationalities inhabiting Siberia. Many valuable manuscripts and books have been collected. Important headway has been made in studying the history of Siberia in the epoch of feudalism and capitalism. Research workers specializing in the history of the Soviet period are closely studying the struggle for Soviet power, the development of Siberia during the period of socialist construction and mature socialism, devoting particular attention to the history of the working class, the peasantry and the intelligentsia of Siberia and emphasizing their significant contribution to the development of the country as a whole.

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A. O. CHUBARYAN. Soviet Historians and the 14th World Congress of Historical Sciences

The article briefly touches on the problems to be discussed at the Fourteenth World Congress of historians which is scheduled to take place in San Francisco (U.S.A.) in August 1975. Soviet scientists are busily preparing for participation in the congress discussions on such major subjects as "Historical Science and Society", "Revolutions", "Human Rights", "National Minorities", etc. Simultaneously with this the congress will examine a number of questions pertaining to research methods and methodology, problems of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary history. The congress proceedings will include meetings of diverse international commissions and associations. The article also dwells on the impact made by the present-day ideological struggle on the preliminary arrangements and the convocation of the forthcoming international forum of historians.

M. A. OKUNEVA. The Doctrine of Theodore Roosevelt and the Anti-Imperialist Movement in Latin America at the Beginning of the 20th Century

Drawing on a number of new archive materials, the author shows the U. S. imperialist expansion in Latin America at the beginning of the 20th century. The article reveals the true nature and significance of Theodore Roosevelt's doctrine directed against the national independence of the Latin American peoples and basically aimed at protecting the interests of the monopolies, intensifying the exploitation of the working class and all the other sections of the toiling population in Latin American countries. The new documents cited by the author convincingly refute the spurious assertions of American historiography that there is no criticism or any opposition in Latin America to Roosevelt's interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine and effectively bear out Lenin's conclusion about the widespread discontent caused by this doctrine among broad segments of the population in Latin America. The article also highlights the steady growth of the anti-imperialist movement in Latin America at the beginning of this century and the prominent part played in it by the working class.

M. M. SMIRIN. The Progressive Significance of Thomas Muntzer's Pantheism

Thomas Muntzer is known in the Reformation movement as a prominent ideologist of the popular trend. The basic proposition of his pantheistic philosophy and his ethics consisted in the belief that the will of the "universal whole" (God) is realized in the purposive actions of morally perfect individuals who regard themselves as parts of this whole and who have no other aims except those expressing the will of the "universal whole". Thomas Muntzer maintained that only the working people, as distinct from "big Hanses", can understand the greatness of the "universal whole", express and realize its will. Hence his main thesis: the power must be transferred to the common people. Assiduously studying the works produced by prominent personalities in the period of the Nordic Renaissance, Thomas Muntzer indicated the ways for the most consistent development of humanistic ideas during the years of the highest revolutionary upsurge in 16th century Germany.

Orphus

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