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V. V. MARYINA. The Interrelations Between the Workers' and Peasant Parties During the Revolutions of the 1940's in the Countries of Central and Southeastern Europe

The article examines the interrelations of the Communist and Workers' parties of Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and Yugoslavia with the peasant parties and organizations during the revolutions which broke out in these countries in the concluding stage and after the termination of the second world war. The attitude of the proletarian parties to the Right-wing peasant parties in the initial phase of the revolutions was determined by the Communists' striving to unite in National Fronts the broadest possible segments of the population, to prevent the split of these Fronts. Hence the two-way policy followed by the Communist parties: tolerance coupled with a desire to enlist the cooperation of the peasant parties within the framework of the National Fronts, on the one hand, and resolute rejection of unprincipled compromises, trenchant criticism and exposure of the Right-wing peasant leaders' antidemocratic policy spearheaded against the people's fundamental interests, on the other. With the progressive development and deepening of the revolutionary process the line of completely unmasking and isolating the false peasant leaders grew more pronounced and began to prevail in the policy of the proletarian parties.

R. G. TSYPKINA. The Network of the Revolutionary Military Committees in the European Part of Russia

The author of the article makes an attempt to show the network of the Revolutionary Military Committees and to trace the dynamics of their formation in three principal regions of the European part of Russia at the very height of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The author comes to the conclusion that the Revolutionary Military Committees were established during the most crucial period of struggle for the power of the Soviets, that is, from the end of October through December 1917, and that the leading role in this process belonged to the urban and rural communities in which the Bolshevik Party organizations were functioning.

K. M. ASTRAKHAN. The History of the Bourgeois and Petty-Bourgeois Parties of Russia in 1917 as Reflected in Contemporary Soviet Literature

The article analyzes a number of works highlighting the history of the parties of Constitutional-Democrats, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries from March to October 1917. The author makes a point of stressing that the historical literature under review discloses most comprehensively on the basis of a wide range of documentary materials the counter-revolutionary activity of the Constitutional-Democrats-the main party of the Russian bourgeoisie - and the evolution of the petty-bourgeois parties of the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries from the policy of opportunism and compromise to downright counter-revolution. The article underscores the significance of the closely-argumented conclusion drawn by Soviet historians, which irrefutably proves that it was precisely the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries that adopted the policy of compromise with the bourgeoisie, thereby completely precluding the possibility of the peaceful development of the revolution under the keynote of united action by the proletarian and the petty-bourgeois parties. In conclusion the author singles out a number of questions which require further elaboration: the alignment of forces in the petty-bourgeois bloc, the evolution of relations between the Constitutional- Democrats, on the one hand, and the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, on the other, the Bolsheviks' tactic in relation to the petty-bourgeois parties at the different stages of the revolution.

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B. N. MIRONOV. The Dynamics of Grain Prices in Russia Over the Period 1801 - 1914

The article traces the basic trends in the fluctuation of grain prices in Russia over a period of 114 years. The author shows that the rise of grain prices during that period was registered, though in varying degrees, throughout the length and breadth of Russia. The disparity between the grain prices obtaining in the various districts and regions of the country was considerably reduced during the period under examination. The tendency towards levelling local grain prices inside Russia and the trend towards evening out grain prices obtaining in Russia and on the world markets determined the peculiar features attending the dynamics of grain prices in Russia during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

L. N. ANISIMOV. The Jarring Mission in the Middle East and the Manoeuvres of Israeli Diplomacy

The article brings out the significance of the mission assigned to Gunnar Jarring, Socialist-Revolutionaries, on the other, the Bolsheviks' tactic in relation to the petty - to Moscow, in the peaceful adjustment of the Middle East conflict in 1967 - 1973. The author examines the positions held by the states drawn into the conflict and the stand taken by. the great powers on the basis of official U. N. documents and materials. The article also dwells on the question concerning the role of the United Nations as a prestigious world organization in settling international armed conflicts by peaceful means. The author shows the growing isolation of Israel on the international scene and the ignominious failure of the attempts made by Israeli diplomacy to counterpose itself to the peace efforts on the part of the U. N. and the overwhelming majority of its members.

A. A. KARENIN. The "Balance of Forces" Theory

The article examines one of the stages in the ideological development of the American "balance of forces" foreign policy doctrine. Drawing on his analysis of the major changes in the alignment of world forces which occurred in the years of the second world war, the author convincingly demonstrates the utter insolvency of the "balance of forces" concept both as an instrument of foreign policy and as a method of interpreting international developments. The article also graphically shows that the "balance of forces" philosophy is absolutely untenable in our days, when the world is witnessing a radical restructuring of relations between socialist and capitalist countries on the basis of the peaceful co-existence principles.

E. F. KOVALEV. Maoism Unmasked

Drawing chiefly on P. P. Vladimirov's diary put out under the title of "China's Special District" as well as on a number of other publications and sources, the author brings out the anti-Marxist essence of Mao Tse-tung's theory and practice in 1942 - 1945, during the so-called Yenan period (1934 - 1947). The article graphically reveals the rabidly anti-communist, anti-Soviet and nationalistic character of the views and activity of Mao Tse-tung and his associates, which became clearly apparent already at that time. The author draws the conclusion about the groundlessness and futility of all attempts made by Maoist and bourgeois historiography to pass off the opportunistic line espoused by Mao Tse-tung in those years and the departure of the present Peking leaders from the principles of Marxism-Leninism and proletarian internationalism as the line of the entire Communist Party of China, and to spread the spurious allegation that this line "fully accords" with Marxist ideology.

Orphus

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