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P. A. GOLUB. The Military Preparation of the Great October Revolution (Lenin's Military Programme and Its Practical Realization)

Highlighting the role of Lenin's military programme in the struggle for the victory of the socialist revolution in Russia, the article briefly examines the component parts of the programme and, accordingly, analyzes the main directions of the Bolshevik Party's military activity. The author shows the ways and methods of building up the armed forces of the socialist revolution, indicates their role in the conditions of peaceful and non-peaceful development of the class struggle, and describes Lenin's art of correctly deploying them in the course of the armed uprising organized in October 1917. Much attention is given in the article to the problem of alienating the army from the ruling classes and winning over the most conscious and progressive-minded segment of the soldiers and sailors to the side of the socialist revolution.

L. S. GLIAZER. At the Sources of Comprehensive Planning (the Experience of Applying the Hydraulic Method of Peat Extraction)

The article examines the practical experience gained in the early 1920's in applying the hydraulic method of peat extraction invented by Russian engineers R. E. Klasson and V. D. Kirpichnikov. A careful analysis of this experience enables one to understand more clearly how the problems of scientific and technical progress were tackled in the early years of Soviet power. The author shows that the hydraulic peat extraction programme was practically realized by methods essentially constituting the rudiments of comprehensive planning which became very widespread in the U.S.S.R. in the stage of developed socialism. The article cites a number of facts illustrating the conspicuous part played by V. I. Lenin in devising and applying new methods of planning scientific and technological progress in the conditions of socialist society.

E. V. ILLERITSKAYA. The Bankruptcy of the Bourgeois and Petty- Bourgeois Parties' Agrarian Programmes and Policy in Russia as Reflected in Soviet Historiography

The article analyzes a number of works by Soviet historians highlighting the bankruptcy of the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois parties' agrarian programmes and policy in Russia. The author's attention is focussed on the appraisal given by Soviet historians to the period from February to October 1917, when these parties were in power and when the bourgeois essence of the Constitutional Democrats' agrarian programme and the open betrayal of the peasants' interests by the Menshevik and Socialist-Revolutionary parties became obvious to all. As was graphically demonstrated by the experience of the revolution, only the Bolsheviks' agrarian programme formulated by V. I. Lenin and expressing the vital interests of the mass of the toiling peasantry proved to be a genuinely scientific one.

G. V. ALFEROVA. The Organization of Town-Building in the Russian State in the 16th-17th Centuries

The article graphically shows that the building of new towns and urban communities in the Russian state proceeded very intensively in the 16 - 17th centuries. Their planning was based on definite town-building standards. The article analyzes a number of docu-

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ments reflecting these standards. Taking Sviyazhsk, Elets, Tsarev-Borisov, Novy Narim and several other towns as an example, the author traces the methods of their construction and the policy of the state in planning, financing and supervising the construction of newly-founded towns.

A. Z. NURKAYEVA. The May 1903 Coup in Serbia (Its Causes and Consequences)

The article traces the impact made by the class struggle of the Serbian proletariat on the policy and tactics of the Serbian bourgeoisie which was forced to yield to the pressure of the masses and carry out a coup d'etat in 1903. At the turn of the 20th century the reactionary system of power in Serbia became an obstacle to the further development of capitalism. Nevertheless the Serbian bourgeoisie was not in a position to wage a radical and consistent struggle against the system of absolute monarchy owing to its own weakness, but chiefly because of its shackling dependence on foreign capital. The decisive positions in the fight for democracy belonged to the working class. Its revolutionary struggle, of which the powerful March 1903 demonstration became the culminating point, compelled the bourgeoisie to carry out a coup from above. The article also analyzes the consequences of this coup in the sphere of foreign policy.

N. V. SIVACHEV. State-Monopoly Capitalism in the U.S.A. (Genesis and Development of Contemporary Economic, Social and Political Doctrines)

The article analyzes the process of state-monopoly development of the U.S.A. in our days. The author examines the development of state-monopoly capitalism, at first characterizing it as a tendency and then-from 1929 to 1945-as a determining feature of contemporary American capitalism, defines neo-liberalism and neo-conservatism as the principal ideologico-political doctrines of state-monopoly capitalism in the U.S.A. and shows their connection with traditional bourgeois individualism. The article makes a point of stressing that the state-monopoly methods of solving socio- economic problems, which, objectively and subjectively, are aimed at creating a long- term alternative to socialism, are unable to overcome the general crisis of capitalism.

A. I. NEMIROVSKY. Titus Livius' Socio-Political and Philosophico-Religious Views

The work of Titus Livius embodies the most salient features of the ideology prevailing during the reign of Emperor Augustus. He adopted the form of arranging the material in chronological order by the year and, like annalists, began his narration from the appearance of the town. His narrative is filled with information about diverse mysterious signs and miracles borrowed from the writings of high priests, and he makes it appear as if he believes in them. This was a piece of deliberate camouflage corresponding in full measure to the political hypocrisy of the Augustus regime with its pretentious orientation on the ancestors' valour. The fundamental premises from which Titus Livius proceeded determined his departure from the finest specimens of Grecian historiographical practice and became a source of modernizing the past. Titus Livius realized the demands made on an historical work as a genre of oratory, which were formulated by Cicero, and preserved the annalistic tradition that has not come down to us.



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