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Z. V. ZHDANOVSKAYA. Labour Organization in V. I. Lenin's Creative Laboratory

The emphasis in the article is laid on the organizing role of the methodical principles used by Lenin in the process of bibliographical and source research heuristics as well as in elaborating plans for his future works. The author shows the variety of forms of fixating, systematizing, making bibliographical notes, and the peculiarities of concisely summarizing sources by Lenin, and analyzes Lenin's methods of developing his working plans. The article makes a point of stressing that the study of Lenin's research process is of the utmost significance for a proper understanding of the genesis of his ideas and conclusions regarding the cardinal problems of the revolutionary regeneration of society.

A. N. KHEIFETZ. Lenin and China (1917 - 1924)

The article examines the role of V. I. Lenin in formulating the political course of the CFSU and the Soviet government in relation to China. Under Lenin's guidance the Soviet government put an end once and for all to the colonialist policy of the tsarist autocracy. Support of the Chinese working people, of all progressive forces of China against imperialism was the bedrock principle underlying Lenin's policy. While unflaggingly pursuing this policy, Lenin tirelessly exposed China's reactionary elements and organized a firm rebuff to the Chinese militarists who, acting jointly with the imperialist powers, tried to liquidate the Soviet people's revolutionary gains with the help of armed intervention. In conclusion the author emphatically stresses that the Communist Party and the Soviet government have invariably followed Lenin's policy towards China.

I. A. ALTMAN. The Programme of A. I. Ulyanov's Group

The article analyzes the programme of the "terrorist faction" of the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) party, formulated by Alexander Ulyanov. The author traces the history of this document, the final text of which was drawn up in February 1887 and then discussed by the members of the group. The programme consisted of two parts, the first of which was regarded by its authors as a draft, whose basic aim was to unite the members of the People's Will party and the Social-Democrats. The article examines the sources used by the compilers of the programme and the connection existing between a number of its propositions with G. V. Plekhanov's works. The programme of Alexander Ulyanov's group reflects the complex process of transition from Narodism (Populism) to Marxism in the 1880's.

HADJI MURAT IBRAGHIMBEILI, V. I. SHEREMET. Contemporary Turkish Historiography of the Eastern (Crimean) War

The authors show how contemporary Turkish historiography reflects the origin and character of the Crimean War of 1853 - 1856, its economic, military and political results. They examine Russo-Turkish relations, illustrate the relations of the Ottoman Empire with the Western Powers, which led to ruinous economic and political consequences for Turkey. The article also discloses the role played by the ruling element of Britain and France in unleashing Russo-Turkish military conflicts in the 18th-19th centuries and shows the interconnection between Turkey's entry into the war of 1853 - 1856 and her receipt of loans from Britain and France.

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O. E. TUGANOVA. The Shaping of National Culture in the USA.

The author traces the shaping of a number of characteristic features of American culture. Chief attention in the article is devoted to analyzing the sources of American culture and to illustrating its spread over America's territory. The author also examines the peculiarities of education and enlightenment and certain specific features of artistic culture. Every cultural process is viewed by the author in close connection with the social class relations and contradictions, with the gradual shaping of social consciousness, the struggle of ideas, the movements of social protest, the roots and sources of social movements. Many feature of the Americans' national consciousness become much more understandable when examined through the prism of the history of culture.

S. M. STAM. The Culture of the Renaissance: Contents, Evolution, Periodization

The Renaissance was an ideological and cultural movement engendered by the epoch of transition from feudalism to capitalism. It signified a dialectical leap in ideological development. Its source was the appearance in the advanced Italian towns of the early forms of capitalist production in the 14th century. Nevertheless, the antagonism between the rising bourgeois society and the feudal environment continued to remain the chief social contradiction of the epoch. That explains why the humanism of the Renaissance became the ideology of all the anti-feudal forces. Hence the historically progressive nature of Renaissance individualism, opposition to the system of social estates, and freethinking. The well-grounded periodization of the Renaissance requires that humanism be viewed as an original, integral ideologico-philosophical teaching. Its culminating point was the world outlook of Leonardo da Vinci-an outlook distinguished, on the whole, for its materialism and atheism. The objective facts fail to justify the glorification of Neo-Platonism as the highest manifestation of Renaissance humanism, although this tendency is very much in vogue in contemporary Western literature.

Orphus

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