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V. I. BUGANOV, G. A. TRUKAN. Topical Problems of Source Research in the History of the U.S.S.R.

The article briefly describes the vast amount of work carried out in the field of source research relating to Russian and Soviet history in the period between the 24th and 25th CPSU Congresses and examines the tasks of further research in this sphere. Noting the achievements made in studying Lenin's laboratory of historical research, the authors stress the vital need of concentrating the attention of Soviet historians on creating a generalizing collective work about the Leninist method of treating sources and its closest connection with the general Marxist conception of the historical process. The article gives a detailed characteristic of the progress made in the field of source research devoted to the history of Soviet society.

S. I. SMETANIN. The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the Urals

The article highlights the beginning of the industrial revolution at the mining enterprises in the Urals in the period preceding the abolition of serfdom. Drawing on his close analysis of the numerous reports and other materials submitted by the management of these enterprises, the author clearly shows that in the conditions of production organization obtaining under serfdom, the transition to puddling and other technological changes, which were accompanied by the mass employment of hired labour in auxiliary work processes, could not ensure lower production costs or bring down the prices of finished goods. The rising metal prices were an economic expression of the crisis corroding the serf-ownership system based on feudal oppression, reflecting the incompatibility of the new productive forces with the regime founded on feudal oppression.

Y. B. RYABOSHAPKO. Russo-Swedish Relations at the Close of the 16th and the Beginning of the 17th Centuries

The article examines one of the stages of Russo-Swedish relations at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries, which were keynoted by the struggle waged by Sweden to compel Russia to ratify the Tyavzin peace treaty of 1595 which finalized the results of the Livonian War. Declining to ratify the treaty for a protracted period and having weighty reasons to do so, Russia took advantage of this factor to stabilize her relations with Recz Pospolita, Denmark, the Hanseatic League and all the other enemies of Sweden.

Y. P. AVERKIEVA, A. I. PERSHITZ. The "Soviet Ethnography": Half-Centenary of Publication

The article highlights the principal trends in the activity of the "Soviet Ethnography"- the central journal published by Soviet ethnographers-over the fifty years of its existence. The authors illustrate the journal's activity at the different stages in the development of the Soviet ethnographical school and in diverse fields of research. The attention in the article is focussed on how the journal reflects the progress of research in the contemporary ethnic, cultural and social welfare processes, ethnic and cultural history, as well as the general theory of culture and ethnos. Particular emphasis is laid by the authors on the journal's elaboration of problems posed by the branches of science closely related to ethnography-the history of the primitive society, ethnogeography, folklore, ethnolingui-stics, anthropology.

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V. P. CHUGAYEV. The Movement for the Formation of a People's Front in Poland

The article analyzes the experience of the Polish Communists' activity in rallying all the anti-imperialist and peace-loving forces of their country and building up a people's front for the struggle against the onslaught of fascism and the growing danger of unleashing a new world war. Under the banner of the people's front the working class of Poland organized powerful manifestations which merged with the peasant movement and the national-liberation struggle of the working people in the Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia. This struggle erected a powerful barrier to the fascization of Poland and checked the activity of her militaristic circles. The experience gained in the formation of the people's front during the prewar years helped the Polish Communists to organize a broad Resistance movement against the nazi invaders in the second world war period and to rally the forces of the entire Polish people for the building of socialism in their country.

S. S. PASKOV. Japanese Bourgeois Historiography of Japan's Imperialist Expansion at the End of the 19th and the First Three Decades of the 20th Centuries

The author examines a number of works produced by contemporary Japanese historians belonging to the bourgeois-liberal trend and devoted to the various aspects of Japan's foreign policy at the end of the 19th and the first three decades of the 20th centuries. The article analyzes the methodological principles and conceptions of Japanese historians on the following questions: Japanese imperialism, the history of Sino-Japanese relations, Japan's relations with other imperialist powers. The author shows the utter hollowness of the attempts made by a number of bourgeois historians to disguise the apology of Japanese expansion in the period under review.

A. A. BOKSHCHANIN. The Policy Pursued by the Chinese Empire in the National Borderlands at the Beginning of the 15th Century

The article, which is based on anthentic Chinese sources, reveals the basic aims and methods of the policy pursued by feudal China towards its subjects belonging to different national minority groups. Analyzing materials relating to the early 15th century, the author shows how with the help of Whip-and-carrot methods (resorting to armed force in conjunction with diplomatic methods of "winning over people's hearts") the Chinese government secured the consolidation of its power in the outlying national districts of the empire. The article points out that the non-Chinese population inhabiting the fringe areas put up active resistance to the expansionist policy and brutal oppression on the part of the Chinese authorities. This resistance was suppressed more ruthlessly than the riots and disturbances flaring up among the Chinese peasantry.

Orphus

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