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S. L. TITARENKO. Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution of a New Type

The article brings out the most important features that distinguish the first bourgeois- democratic revolution in Russia from all the other bourgeois revolutions which took place in a number of West-European countries in the pre-imperialist epoch. The author shows the new alignment of the class forces in the revolution of 1905 - 1907 and underscores the specific role of the proletariat as the hegemon class and of the peasantry as its revolutionary ally. Much attention is devoted in the article to a detailed analysis of the two diametrically opposite political lines in the revolution: the consistently revolutionary line followed by the Bolsheviks and the opportunist, compromising line of the Mensheviks. The author makes a point of stressing the profoundly popular character of the first Russian revolution, its impact on the revolutionary struggle waged by the proletariat in the Western capitalist countries and its role in awakening the peoples of the East oppressed by imperialism.

S. B. BAISHEV, G. F. DACHSHLEIGER. The Socio-Econornic Benefits Accruing from the Development of Virgin and Long-Fallow Land in the Kazakh S.S.R.

Drawing on a wide range of statistical materials and other sources, the authors examine the significant progress made in expanding grain production, developing livestock farming and substantially increasing the area under industrial crops in the Kazakh S.S.R. as a result of putting vast tracts of virgin and disused land under the plough; the correlation of state-farm and collective-farm production; the demographic and social structure of the rural population in Kazakhstan, its rapid cultural advancement, the big strides made in raising the people's standard of living and in improving working conditions. The new rural communities that came into being in the former uninhabited areas occupied by virgin and disused land, the authors write in conclusion, have become an integral part of developed socialist society. The toiling farmers inhabiting the former virgin land areas are working enthusiastically to achieve a steep rise in agricultural production, thereby continuing the heroic feat of those who blazed the trail in the nation-wide effort to bring virgin and long-fallow land under cultivation.

S. F. VASILYEV. The Socialist Emulation Movement in Soviet Industry During the Eighth Five-Year-Plan Period

The experience gained in developing the socialist emulation movement in Soviet industry during the eighth five-year-plan period graphically shows that emulation proved very effective as an instrument of stimulating the working people's creative efforts for the purpose of securing the fulfilment of the five-year plan. The main objective of the socialist emulation movement was to mobilize the effort of the working masses to the utmost degree for raising the productivity of labour and enhancing the efficiency of social production, bringing down the expenditure of labour per unit of autput, rationally utilizing and economizing raw materials and other resources and improving quality standards. Socialist emulation infused the masses with labour enthusiasm, stimulated their creative attitude to work and advanced to the fore millions of top-notchers and production innovators, rationalizers and inventors. The task of the Party and trade union organizations consisted in promoting and systematically perfecting the socialist emulation movement as the most important motive force in solving the tasks of communist construction.

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V. I. SHEVTSOV. Gustav Evers and Russian Historiography

The article analyzes the historical views expounded by the prominent Russian scientist Gustav Evers during the first three decades of the 19th century and defines his place in Russian historiography. The author shows that Gustav Evers was the first theoretician of the primitive communal system and the first sociologist in Russian historiography to draw the attention of scientists to the problem of society and social relations. Practical application of the new methods of cognition, the close study of political and legal relationships both in their historical and juridical aspects constituted an important distinctive feature of Evers' investigations which contributed to the development of the history of Russian law. The numerous research works produced by Gustav Evers clearly reflect the close interaction of Russian and German scientific thought. Side by side with carefully studying the achievements of West- European science, he imbibed the advanced ideas and valuable conclusions of Russian historians and proved capable of effectively applying them in the process of his research in the history of Russia, which became the principal subject of his investigations.

V. N. VINOGRADOV. The 1918 Intervention in Bessarabia as a Link in the Conspiracy Hatched by International Imperialism Against Soviet Russia

The article examines the various aspects of the seizure of Bessarabia by monarchist Rumania in the beginning of 1918. This aggressive act committed by international imperialism is depicted by the author as a component part of a far-reaching military conspiracy against Soviet Russia, whose main objective was to strangle the socialist revolution. The article traces the circumstances which enabled the ruling circles of Rumania to put through their scheme of invading Bessarabia not only with the tacit consent but with direct encouragement and support of two major imperialist groupings - the Entente countries and the powers forming the Central Alliance, notwithstanding the fact that they were still in a state of war with each other. The author's attention is focussed on the heroic resistance put up by the peoples of Bessarabia against foreign military intervention, on the resolute struggle carried on by the Soviet government headed by V. I. Lenin against the annexation of Bessarabia and on the participation of Rumanian internationalists in organizing an armed rebuff to the forces of aggression.

Y. M. KUKUSHKIN. The Downfall of the Fascist Dictatorship in Portugal

The article examines the economic and political reasons that led to the emergence of a revolutionary situation in Portugal, traces the gradual rise and spread of the "captains' movement" and the process of its subsequent development into the Armed Forces Movement, and dwells on the democratic reforms carried out by the Provisional Revolutionary Government since the victory of the democratic revolution on April 25, 1974. The author analyzes the struggle carried on by the democratic forces against the reactionary elements who are doing everything they can to disrupt the revolutionary process, the policy steadfastly pursued by the Portuguese Communist Party with the aim of consolidating the democratic forces and promoting closer unity between the people and the Armed Forces Movement. The article also sums up the results of the Seventh Extraordinary Congress of the Portuguese Communist Party and the progress made in the nation-wide preparations for elections to the Constituent Assembly.

L. S. PERELOMOV. Mao, the Legists and the Confucianists

Traditions in China are distinguished for their exceptional tenacity. This specific feature of Chinese life was skilfully exploited by Mao-Tse-tung in his effort to justify the measures introduced in the sixties and seventies by making indirect references to ancient times in keeping with Chinese traditions. It is for the attainment of this aim that the Maoists' struggle against the forces opposing the military-bureaucratic regime, the "cultural revolution" and the Maoist dictatorship is conducted under the guise of a polemic against Confucianism. Moreover, in doing so the Maoists adroitly use the theoretical propositions of the legists who were in favour of investing the emperors and the central government of bygone days with unlimited dictatorial powers. This is manifested with particular clarity in the "campaign against Lin Piao and Confucius" which was launched in 1972.

Orphus

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