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V. I. KASYANENKO. Some Historiographical Questions of Developed Socialism in the U.S.S.R.

The article is devoted to an analysis of the main trends of research in the new phase of developed socialism in the U.S.S.R. The essence and historical place, the criteria and indications of developed socialist society, the bounds and prospects of its development into the highest phase of communism-these and other questions are elucidated by the author on the basis of historiographical analysis of literature published in the period between the 24th and 25th Congresses of the CPSU. The article traces the predominant trends in the development of historical research and pinpoints the difficulties of studying the present-day experience of communist construction. Much attention is given by the author to the methodology of research into the complex processes of social progress in the conditions of developed socialism, the tasks of raising the quality of scientific investigations, the further deepening of ties between theoretical research and the practical application of scientific achievements.

L. N. ULYANOV. Siberia's Agriculture and Peasantry by the Close of the Great Patriotic War

The article shows the impact of the war on the state of Siberia's agriculture and peasantry, focussing attention on some of the specific conditions attending the development of agricultural production in this region. The author analyzes the data on the manpower resources in the countryside, the material and technical basis of agriculture, illustrates the changes in the level and structure of crop areas, grain harvest yields for 1940 and 1945, the objective and subjective reasons responsible for the decline in the number of socially-owned livestock while maintaining its productivity at a comparatively high level, the changes in the non-distributable funds and in the fixed production assets of collective farms, in the labour remuneration of collective farmers, machine and tractor station personnel and state-farm workers. In spite of the war the Soviet people succeeded in preserving the main productive forces of agriculture, ensuring a steady and adequate supply of food products for the population and of raw materials for industry. Put to a particularly severe test during the Great Patriotic War, the most trying war in human history, the Soviet collective-farm and state-farm system stood that test with credit, graphically demonstrating to the whole world its strength and viability.

G. A. FYODOROV-DAVYDOV. The Nomads' Social System in the Medieval Period

The author makes an attempt to trace the existence of feudal ownership of the land and property differentiation among the nomad peoples in the medieval period, at the same time giving a brief characteristic of the nomads' social system in the Middle Ages.

Y. A. ANINSKY. The Party Reform in Indonesia, 1965 - 1975

From the very first days of its coming to power in Indonesia, the "new order" regarded the existing bourgeois parties as a hindrance to the establishment of the military rule for a protracted period. Its efforts were directed towards not only reducing the number of existing parties and divorcing from them the trade union, women's, youth and peasant organizations with a view of subsequently merging them into uniform unions, but of placing the country's entire political and social life under the control of the military. The article shows the stage-by-stage process of altering the party system, gives a characteristic of different parties, reveals the antagonism between the army and the parties as the two

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forces, the first of which sought to institute an authoritarian form of government and the second worked for the victory of bourgeois parliamentary democracy. Notwithstanding the fact that the authorities managed to attain their goal, the author comes to the conclusion that this did not make for the stability of the political situation inside the country, as is borne out by the developments of recent years,

V. A. TROFIMOV. Italy's Aggression in Ethiopia and Its Consequences

The author's attention is centred on disclosing the sum and substance of the policy furthered by Italian fascism in Ethiopia in 1935 - 1940: its military, economic, social and administrative aspects. The article examines the consequences of the Italo-thiopian war both for Ethiopia and for Italy by analyzing a wide range of documents, many of which for the first time appear in scientific literature in Russian translation,

G. P. KUROPYATNIK. The Land Question and the Revolutionary Situation in North America on the Eve of the War of Independence

Under the conditions obtaining in North America in the mid-18th century, with more than 90 per cent of the population engaged in agriculture, the feudal practices artificially implanted in the system of land tenure by the metropolitan country fettered the development of the plantation and crop farming economy. The situation was further aggravated by the economic depression following the Seven Years War and the royal proclamation of 1763 forbidding the resettlement of colonists to Western lands. The risings of the I760's in Pennsylvania, South and North Carolina and New York were directed towards abolishing feudal duties. A tense situation also developed on Western lands, for it was precisely there that the impotence of the colonial authorities relying on the regular army was graphically demonstrated for the first time. The young American bourgeoisie strove to take advantage of the rising popular movement in order to eliminate restrictions hampering the development of trade, industry and handicrafts. The bourgeoisie not only provided the spontaneous movement of the masses with slogans but assumed leadership of their struggle, exercising political and ideological hegemony in the American War of Independence.

Orphus

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