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I. V. DUDINSKY. The Socialist Community and World Development

The article examines a number of problems which have a direct bearing on the influence exerted by the policy of the socialist states on present-day international relations. The article graphically shows how the socialist community, relying on its growing might and international prestige, is working perseveringly to achieve universal recognition of the principles of peaceful co-existence and is steadfastly implementing a coordinated foreign policy line whose basic objective is to reinforce political detente by complementing it with military detente. Particular importance is attached in the article to questions concerning the development of economic relations among countries belonging to the diametrically opposite social systems. In this connection the author underscores the objective need for such relations, the reciprocal advantages they offer and their significance for the strengthening of confidence among states.

I. L. KORNAKOVSKY, V. E. POLETAYEV. The Basic Changes Taking Place in the Social Complexion of Soviet Working Youth

The article is based on materials furnished by sociological studies of the labour, culture and daily life of working youth in major industrial centres of the Soviet Union (Moscow and Moscow Region, Leningraq, Gorky, Krarkov, Ivanovo, the Dniepropetrovsk, Voroshilovgrad and Donetsk regions), carried out in 1936 and in 1972. The authors examine the various aspects of the life and activity of Soviet working youth and the basic tendencies of its development, give its demographical characteristic and define the social strata comprising it. The article examines the basic indications which characterize the workers' cultural and technical level in the conditions of developed socialist society, pointing out that the most typical feature of the young Soviet worker of our time is a high degree of his social, political and production activity.

I. Y. TRIFONOV. The Rout of the Revolt of 1924 Staged by the Mensheviks and Kulak Elements in Georgia

The 1924 revolt in Georgia was the last serious flare-up of the armed counter- revolution in Transcaucasia engineered with the aim of restoring the bourgeois system and liquidating the gains of socialism. The counter-revolutionary forces there were headed by the Mensheviks who allied themselvel with the bourgeois social-federalist party and with the monarchists and enlisted the support of the leaders of the Second International and of the governments of the imperialist countries. The working class, the toiling peasantry and the vast majority of the intelligentsia rose with one accord in defence of Soviet power. The revolt was suppressed in the course of a few days by the volunteer detachments assisted by Red Army units. The chief outcome of the 1924 events was that Men-shevism in Georgia completely discredited itself and Soviet power became firmly established in the republic.

A. L. NIKITIN. Biarmie and Ancient Rus

The author shows that the archeological study of the White Sea coast, coupled with critical analysis of the sources containing information on the Biarmians and the complete absence of any reference to Biarmie and its inhabitants in the Russian documents up to the very close of the 17th century prompts the need to give up the old notions about the geographical location of Biarmie and to place it in the southeast of the Baltic region, on the shores of the Western Dvina and the Gulf of Riga, which preserved the toponym Jurmala adequate to the name of the Biarmians sanctuary. A careful analysis of the testimony contained in the Scandinavian sagas enables one to regard the Biarmians as the Celtic population of Eastern Europe, which left its traces in the archeological monuments of Northeastern Europe and in "A Tale of Temporal Years" written by Russian chroniclers.

M. A. ZABOROV. Historiography Research Works Devoted to the Contemporary International Working-Class Movement

Most of the available research works, with rare exceptions, do not give an integral idea of the impact made by the evolution of historical views and conceptions on the destinies and role of the working class, of the succession of research schools, methods, etc. The efforts to create a generalizing work devoted to the historiography of the entire working-class movement encounters serious difficulties connected with the choice of an equitable historiographic criterion for appraising many works devoted to most diverse aspects of research in the working-class movement. The author believes that the most promising criterion for such appraisals is the stand taken by one or another researcher

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on the question which is of paramount importance for a clear understanding of the histo-riographical process - that of the rise of the proletariat as a truly revolutionary class at the different stages of its history.

E. I. FEDOSOVA. The Polish Question in France's Foreign Policy of 1807 - 1812

The author singles out two distinct stages in France's approach to the Polish question in the period 1807 - 1812: 1807 - 1809, when the Duchy of Warsaw formed under the Tilsit Treaty was used, by Napoleon as a means of exerting pressure on Prussia, Austria and Russia with the aim of maintaining the Tilsit system, and 1810 - 1812, when the Emperor of France began to evince heightened interest in the Polish lands, first and foremost for purely military purposes. The article makes it abundantly clear that in both stages the Polish problem was for Napoleon merely an instrument for the attainment of his main foreign policy objective-the establishment of his domination over Europe and the whole world.

Orphus

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