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A. I. DMITRIYEV. A Leader of the Leninist Type

The article highlights the many-sided Party and state activity of Comrade Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Much attention is given by the author to illustrating the part played by the CPSU in developing the Leninist principles of foreign and domestic policy, the steadfastness shown by the Soviet people in performing their internationalist duty, the Soviet Union's consistent struggle for peace, democracy and social progress.

A. I. FOMIN. The Establishment and Consolidation of the Centralized Apparatus for Exercising State Guidance of the Soviet Public Education System

The article traces the history of the rise and development of the centralized apparatus for exercising state guidance of the national system of public education during the first months of Soviet power (October 1917-January 1918). Particular attention is paid by the author to a close analysis of the decree by which the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars instituted a State Committee on Education. The article comprehensively examines the first steps towards implementing Lenin's plan of state organization in the sphere of public education, which were taken under the guidance of the Communist Party and which enlisted the active participation of the working people. The author highlights the distinctive features attending the organizational structure of the central Soviet public education bodies, which made the latter fundamentally different from the old bourgeois- landlord ministry of public education.

I. I. MAIDANOV. Byelorussia's Extraordinary Commissions in 1918

The article vividly shows how in the difficult conditions of the Civil War Byelorussia's Bolshevik organizations and Soviets, guiding themselves by V. I. Lenin's teaching on the need to defend the socialist state, proceeded to establish the extraordinary commissions as special organs of the dictatorship of the proletariat for combating counterrevolution, sabotage and profiteering, reinforcing them with reliable personnel and strengthening their ties with the working masses. The article examines the organizational structure of Byelorussia's extraordinary commissions and shows their role in safeguarding the Republic's socialist gains from the encroachments of internal and external counterrevolution in 1918.

G. N. MOISEYEVA. New Materials on the Chronograph with "The Lay of Prince Igor's Host"

Drawing on newly discovered historical records, the author traces the history of the chronograph with "The Lay of Prince Igor's Host," which belonged to A. I. Musin-Pushkin. After the destruction of his collection of manuscripts in 1812, Musin-Pushkin wrote that he had obtained the manuscript from the archimandrite of the Spaso-Jaroslav Monastery. The manuscript of Vassily Krasheninnikov, a merchant from Yaroslavl, entitled "A Description of the Land and Water Circle," contains a chapter "On the Russian State" with references to "The Large Hand- Written Chronograph of the Spaso-Jaroslav Monastery." A careful analysis of these references enables one to draw the conclusion that this chronograph represented an edited version of the chronograph dating back to 1617. The preserved inventories warrant the conclusion that in the vestry of the Spaso-Jaroslav Monastery was kept the only chronograph with the mark "given up" made in the 1787 inventory, which coincides in time with the date on which the chronograph with "The Lay of Prince Igor's Host" was acquired by A. I. Musin-Pushkin. This brings the author to the conclusion that "The Large Hand-Written Chronograph of the Spaso-Jaroslav Monastery," which was used by V. Krasheninnikov in the forties and fifties of the 18th century, is the very chronograph with "The Lay of Prince Igor's Host," the manuscript of which served as the basis for its first publication.

O. G. ZAITSEVA. The Rise and Development of Inter-Governmental World Organizations

The article traces the history of the rise and development of inter-governmental world organizations, whose appearance on the world scene was determined by the objective social requirement to create specialized international agencies for the purpose of regulating the increasingly complicated relations between states. Closely linked with

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the development of the entire system of international relations, these organizations experience in full measure the influence of the far-reaching economic, social and political changes taking place in the international sphere, and reflect these changes in their activity. The author analyzes the role and place of inter-governmental organizations in world affairs and traces their evolution from an auxiliary means of promoting closer contacts between states to one of the most important institutions for regulating international relations in our days.

I. I. LESHCHILOVSKAYA. Slavonic Community Conceptions at the Close of the 18th and in the First Half of the 19th Centuries

In the first half of the 19th century social trends widely differing in their class nature arose and developed in the lands inhabited by the Slavs. An important place in the ideological system of these trends belonged to the conceptions of Slavonic community and to the programme of achieving a closer unity of the Slavs. Relying as they did on the Slavs' traditional ethnic consciousness, these ideas took shape as a result of capitalist development and the formation of Slavonic nations. External socio-political and ideological factors also made their impact on the rise and development of the ideas of Slav unity. The national peculiarities and distinctions obtaining in each of the Slav countries and lands determined the diversity of Slavonic community conceptions. Depending on the social interests they were intended to reflect, the conceptions of Slavonic community were conservative, liberal or democratic in character.

Orphus

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