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A. I. STEPANOV. The U.S.S.R. and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The author highlights the diplomatic struggle around the All-European Conference on Security and Cooperation, beginning with the initiative displayed by the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries in 1966 in proposing the convocation of such a conference and ending with its proceedings and successful .conclusion in 1975. The article stresses that the holding of the Conference marked the fulfilment of one of the paramount tasks formulated in the Peace Programme mapped out by the 24th Congress of the CPSU. The steadily developing and deepening process of international detente, the author writes, is determined above all by the continuously growing might of the socialist world system, the active and constructive foreign policy steadfastly pursued by the U.S.S.R. and the other member-countries of the socialist community, and the militant actions by the peace-loving" forces and the broadest segments of progressive-minded people everywhere. The article draws attention to the fact that the struggle for peace and security in Europe and on the international arena is continuing unabated because the opponents of detente have neither laid down their arms nor abandoned their attempts to switch international relations back to the period of the cold war.

V. A. YEZHOV. Steady Enhancement of the Leading Role Played by the Working Class in Developed Socialist Society

The article analyzes the economic, political, social and ideological factors determining the systematic enhancement of the leading role played by the working class in the conditions of developed socialism. The author cites factual data testifying to the unshakability of the Marxist-Leniiiist teaching on the role played by the working class as the leading force in the building of socialist and communist society. The whole content of the article graphically shows that the leading role of the working class headed by the Communist Party in the building of communism in the U.S.S.R. is an objective law governing the process of social development in the contemporary epoch.

N. B. LEBEDEVA. Contemporary Historiography of the Socialist Emulation Movement in the U.S.S.R.

The author makes a detailed analysis of a number of research works devoted to the socialist emulation movement, which were published between 1970 and 1975. The article gives a classification of this literature, indicates the main directions of present- day scientific efforts and outlines ways and methods of further and deeper thematical research. The author examines a number of works produced by historians, philosophers and economists. Particular attention is devoted in the article to highlighting the elaboration of problems pertaining to the sum and substance of emulation, its effectiveness, the principles of organization, periodization and Party guidance of the socialist emulation movement.

Y. N. ZAKHARUK. Soviet Archeology in 1971 - 1975

The article highlights the development of Soviet archeological science in the period between the 24th and 25th CPSU Congresses. The author focusses attention on the most important scientific achievements and outstanding discoveries made by the multi-national collective of Soviet archeologists in investigating the vast chronological period from the rise of human society to the emergence of statehood and the appearance of class societies.

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Academician A. L. NAROCHNITSKY. Theory and Methodology of the History of International Relations

The author examines the cardinal principles underlying the Marxist theory and methodology of the history of international relations, showing that they are based on dialectical and historical materialism, on the theory of scientific communism. Marxist methodology of the history of international relations is distinguished for scientific objectivity, systematic nature, class approach to the analysis of foreign policy and international events, careful account of the key social and economic factors, recognition of the decisive role played by the economy, analysis of foreign policy in close context with internal policy problems. Considerable attention is devoted in the article to the foreign policy of a socialist state. The author subjects to criticism bourgeois historiography of the contemporary period and maps out certain long-term trends in studying the history of international relations by Marxist historians.

S. M. KHENKIN. The Invincible Column

The article re-creates the history of the campaign launched by the column of L. С Prestes (1924 - 1927)-a major revolutionary action undertaken by a group of patriotic-minded officers in Brazil with the aim of overthrowing the reactionary oligarchic regime and democratizing the country's social and political life. Drawing on documentary materials and memoirs written by some of the insurgents, the author analyzes the political aims and social connections of the revolutionaries. The article makes it abundantly clear that the chief cause responsible for the failure of the patriotic officers was their inability to form an alliance with the working masses of Brazil. A careful study of the experience furnished by the Tenentists' heroic raid enables one to gain a better understanding of the role played by democratic- minded officers in the liberation movement of a number of countries.

Orphus

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