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N. E. KOROLEV. Bolshevism and the World Revolutionary Movement

The article analyzes the historical conditions arjd prerequisites for the emergence of Bolshevism as a distinct trend of political thought and as a political party, highlighting V. I. Lenin's decisive contribution to evolving the fundamental theoretical, political and organizational principles of Bolshevism. The author reveals the epoch-making significance of the victory gained by V. I. Lenin and his associates at the Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party on the main points of the Party's programme and Rules, on the basic aspects of the strategy and tactics of the revolutionary struggle Considerable attention is devoted by the author to the elaboration by Lenin of the theory strategy and tactics of Bolshevism on the basis of the experience furnished by the three Russian revolutions and by the entire world- wide revolutionary movement, to a close analysis of the Bolsheviks' activity on the international arena, to V. I. Lenin's indefatigable efforts to unite the proletariat of all countries under the banner of the socialist revolution. In conclusion the article discloses the international significance of the historical experience gained by the CPSU in giving practical embodiment to the ideas of Marx, Engels and Lenin.

Z. G. LIKHOLOBOVA. The Stakhanov Socialist Emulation Movement in the Donets Coal Basin in 1935 - 1937

Drawing on archive materials and published sources, the author traces the historical conditions and factors that led to the emergence of the Stakhanov socialist emulation movement and highlights its development in the Donbas industry during the final stage of the second five-year plan. The author's attention is focussed on the rapid spread of the emulation movement under the guidance of the Party, the close connection of the Stakhanov movement with new technology, with the cultural and technical advancement of the Soviet working class, with the steady improvement of the material well-being of all segments of the population. The author characterizes the main stages in the development of the movement of production innovators and rationalizers and shows its importance in heightening labour productivity in the factories and mines of the Donets Basin.

Z. K. ZVEZDIN. Soviet Syndicates and Their Role in the National Economy of the U.S.S.R.

The switch-over to the New Economic Policy (NEP), when the establishment and maintenance of rational economic ties between industry and agriculture became the cardinal element of the country's economic development, led to the formation of syndicates by merging the supply and marketing organizations of Soviet industry. They played a conspicuous part in the planned regulation of the internal market supplying the population with consumer goods and providing industrial enterprises and construction projects with machinery and equipment, as well as in completely ousting private capital or drastically restricting its sphere of operation. The methods of economic management employed in the system of syndicates proved to be highly effective. The positive experience gained by Soviet syndicates was subsequently used by the CPSU and by the Soviet government for improving the nation-wide system of economic management.

D. L. POKHILEVICH. The Right of the Byelorussian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian Peasants to Private Holdings and to Separation from the Rural Community in the 15th-16th Centuries

The article examines one of the major problems of the agrarian history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania-the right of the peasants to private holdings and to separation from the rural community. The author shows how this question was treated in pre- revolutionary historiography and analyzes the basic conceptions of Soviet historians concerning the legal status of the Byelorussian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian peasants in the 15th-16th centuries. Drawing on a wide range of sources, the author puts forward his own considerations regarding the peasants' right to private holdings and to separation from the rural community in the period under review, closely linking the changes in the basic content of this right with the development of feudal relationships.

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I. S. YAZHBOROVSKAYA. The Character and Stages of the Revolutionary Process in Poland in 1944 - 1948

The article shows the interpretation given by Polish historiography to the question concerning the character and the principal stages of the revolutionary process in Poland in the early postwar years. The author examines the views of Polish historians on the correlation of the democratic and socialist tasks of the revolutionary process, the efforts made by the Polish Workers Party to strengthen the hegemony of the proletariat in the people's democratic revolution, paying particular attention to the general laws governing the development of the democratic revolution into the socialist revolution, which clearly manifested themselves in the specific conditions obtaining in Poland during the early postwar years.

O. BORISOV, M. ILYIN. The Maoist "Cultural Revolution"

The article is based on concrete facts demonstrating the sum and substance of the events associated with the so-called cultural revolution in China and the main causes that gave rise to this "revolution", the character of the evolution underwent by Maoism during, the past few years. The authors graphically illustrate the utter groundlessness and futility of the attempts made by Mao Tse-tung and his group, as well as by bourgeois and revisionist theoreticians and scientists to rehabilitate Maoism and to justify the policy pursued by Mao Tse-tung and his followers, clearly showing that the "cultural revolution" was the result of an acute economic, political and ideological crisis of Maoism. The article traces the main springs of the socio- political development of the People's Republic of China over the past decade, which precipitated the sharp crisis and determined the spasmodic, leap-like character of this development. The authors analyze the materials of the Ninth and Tenth Congresses of the Chinese Communist Party, characterize the complex internal clan struggle going on within the Maoist top leadership, tracing the evolution of the Mao group from "pseudo-Leftist" slogans to downright betrayal of world socialism to seeking an alliance With the most reactionary and aggressive imperialist circles based on rabid anti-socialism and anti-Sovietism Having objectively aligned themselves with the ultra-reactionary anticommunist forces with the Right and "Left" revisionism, the article says, Maoism has virtually become one of the most dangerous ideological and political enemies of the international Communist movement, of scientific socialism.

Orphus

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