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K. A. GAFUROVA. The Ideological Struggle in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in the Early Period of Soviet Government

The article is devoted to an analysis of the historical prerequisites and the main trends of the ideological struggle carried on by Lenin's Party against bourgeois nationalism and individual manifestations of great-power chauvinism in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in the period of the formation of the U.S.S.R. The author highlights the consistent struggle waged by the Communist Party for the triumph of proletarian internationalism, for undeviatingly carrying into practical effect the Leninist principles of solving the national question.

M. S. FRENKIN. The Assistance Rendered by the Russian Revolutionary Soldiers to the Struggle of the Rumanian Working People in 1917

The broad scope of the revolutionary movement that developed in the armies of the Rumanian front between February 1917 and March 1918 inevitably led to contacts between the Russian revolutionary soldiers and the Rumanian working people. These contacts were facilitated by the mounting agrarian movement in the Rumanian countryside. The assistance extended by the Russian soldiers to the Rumanian working people and to the local Social-Democrats assumed different forms. The Rumanian oligarchy and the front headquarters made strenuous efforts to cou^eract the struggle of the revolutionary soldiers and working people of Rumania. The Great October Revolution sharply accentuated the political character of the manifestations at the front and in the rear. The further spread of the revolutionary movement was prevented by the disintegration of the Rumanian front and by the Focsani armistice.

P. Y. BUKSHPAN. Silkworm Breeding in Russia in the Pre-Reform Period

The system of feudal relations based on serfdom and the government's fiscal policy coupled with the inability of the Russian bourgeoisie to gain possession of the silk raw material market hampered the development of silkworm breeding in the southern provinces of Russia. Even in the Transcaucasus, where there existed favourable historical and climatic conditions, the technical and organizational restructuring of silkworm breeding proceeded very slowly. Nevertheless, the objective process of the rise and development of capitalism, particularly in the sphere of industry, made for the gradual improvement of silkworm breeding in Transcaucasia - the raw material base of textile production in the Moscow industrial district. In the southern parts of Russia the production of silk for industrial purposes in the middle of the 19th century was finally and completely ousted from the economy of the landlords and peasants who switched over to the production of marketable grain, sugar beet and wool.

A. Y. SHPIRT. The Scientific-Technological Revolution and the Problems of Development of the Third World Countries

The author discloses the new tendencies in the social and economic life of developing countries emerging under the influence of the present-day scientific-technological revolution in conditions of the peaceful competition between the two opposite social systems. The article analyzes the new methods of colonialism resorted to by the imperialist powers with the aim of aggravating and deepening the economic, scientific and technical dependence of the Third World countries, as well as the measures taken by the latter to utilize the achievements of modern science and technology for the purpose of overcoming their economic and cultural backwardness and altering the unequal character of international division of labour under capitalism. The author also highlights the role played by the U.S.S.R. and other socialist states in contributing to the solution of the major problems

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facing the countries of the Third World, such as industrialization, the training of national personnel, efforts to accelerate the development of science and technology, etc.

I. M. RAPOPORT. The Political Struggle Around the 1969 Referendum in France

The article focusses attention on the political struggle which developed in France around the 1969 referendum and on the regroupment of the country's political and social forces connected with it. In their efforts to find a way out of the profound crisis that had gripped the regime of the Fifth Republic in the spring of 1968, the ruling element headed by General de Gaulle made an attempt to overcome it by carrying out a series of reforms altering the system of local government and the Senate, the draft of which was submitted to the popular referendum. The reforms represented an attempt on the part of the French bourgeoisie to "integrate" the working people in the system of state-monopoly capitalism. Thanks to the stiff resistance offered to the Gaullist regime by the powerful Left opposition headed by the French Communist Party as well as to the split in the bourgeois bloc, the draft was not approved and General Charles de Gaulle, who made the continued performance of his presidential functions entirely dependent on the endorsement of the draft, was compelled to resign.

M. A. KHRUSTALEV. Imperialism's Colonial Policy in the Arab Countries in the First Half of the 20th Century

Analyzing the political and military-political aspects of imperialism's colonial domination, the author makes an attempt to disclose the main peculiarities of the system of "indirect colonial administration" characteristic of the policy pursued by Britain in the first half of the 20th century as well as of the system of "direct colonial administration" exercised during that same period by France, Italy and Spain. Particular attention is devoted by the author to the character of the influence exerted by diverse forms of colonial rule on the traditional system of power. The author arrives at the conclusion that the system of "direct administration" influenced the traditional structure more profoundly and contributed to the weakening of the positions of the former ruling class. The system of "indirect administration" was chiefly directed towards perpetuating the system of power that had existed prior to the establishment of British rule.

Orphus

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