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L. N. NEZNINSKY. The U.S.S.R. and the European Socialist Countries (certain problems of elaborating the history of the socialist-type international relations)

The article examines problems connected with research in the history of international relations of the new, socialist type on the example of the socialist countries of Europe. Particular attention is devoted by the author to the political and economic relations of these countries. Analyzing in the main the works of Soviet historians, the author briefly describes what has been accomplished in this field and singles out a number of problems which require further elaboration. A conspicuous place is given in the article to the examination of theoretical questions pertaining to the new-type international relations and to the main objectives pursued by a close study of these relations.

L. P. KUCHKINA. Agricultural Workers in the Conditions of Developed Socialism

The article is devoted to one of the fast-growing contingents of the Soviet working class - the agricultural workers. The author shows the place and role of this contingent in the class structure of developed socialist society, examines a number of questions connected with its development and the basic changes in its numerical strength and qualitative composition, characterizes the sources and forms of its replenishment at the present stage. Much space is devoted in the article to the qualitative characteristic of agricultural workers and to the impact made by scientific and technological progress on their professional skill. The author underlines the conspicuous part played by agricultural workers in eliminating the essential distinctions between town and country, between the working class and the peasantry.

V. K. FURAYEV. Soviet-American Scientific and Cultural Ties (1924 - 1933)

The author traces the process of the rise and development of scientific and cultural contacts between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. in the 1920's and early 1930's when the U.S. Administration was still following a policy of diplomatically boycotting the U.S.S.R. The article shows how, despite the formidable difficulties put up by the political course pursued by the United States during that period, the tendency towards scientific and cultural exchanges between tlie two countries, the development of which was stimulated in every way by the Communist Party and the Soviet government, was steadily gaining ground. Mutually beneficial cooperation in the various spheres of science and culture proved to be of much benefit to the people of both countries. Particular importance is attached by the author to the activity of the VOKS (the U.S.S.R. Society for the Promotion of Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries) representation in the United States of America and to the work carried on by the American-Russian institutes of cultural relations. These contacts played their part in turning public opinion in the U.S.A. in favour of establishing Soviet-American diplomatic relations in 1933 and laid the groundwork for the further development of cultural and scientific exchanges between the two countries.

T. I. ALEXEYEVA. The Slavs and the Teutons in the Light of Anthropological Data

The question of the interrelations between the Slavs and the Teutons has long attracted the attention of researchers. But it was resolved in the main on the materials of history, archeology and linguistics. The article examines the Slavs and the Teutons from the viewpoint of anthropology, showing how scientific data reflecting the distinctions in their physical types can be used for the solution of certain questions pertaining to ethnic history.

N. I. KOPYCHEV. The German Workers' Struggle for Solidarity and Friendship with the U.S.S.R. in the Period of the Weimar Republic

The article traces the rise and development of the German workers' international contacts and solidarity with the Soviet state in the period of the Weimar Republic. The author's attention is focussed on highlighting the role of the Communist Party of Germany

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in rallying the masses of the German proletariat for the struggle against the Weimar Republic's participation in the joint anti-Soviet actions of the imperialist powers, for normalizing relations and promoting cooperation between Germany and the Soviet Union. The author examines both the mass manifestations of solidarity with the U.S.S.R. and the efforts of the German Communist Party to make use of the Reichstag, the press and other legal means for strengthening German-Soviet relations,

I. M. SHISHKINA. Bourgeois Historiography of the Kronstadt Mutiny of 1921

The article analyzes the general interpretation and assessment of the anti-Soviet mutiny in Kronstadt proposed by a number of American and British historians. The author shows that most bourgeois works devoted to this subject are marked by their tendentious approach and at times are even distinguished for their frankly anti-Soviet character. The article shows the utter insolvency of the attempts by certain bourgeois authors to gloss over the class essence of the mutiny and to depict it as a socially nebulous mass popular movement. Having clearly demonstrated that the mutiny was a political expression of the economic difficulties experienced by the young Soviet Republic at the end of 1920 and in the opening months of 1921 and that one of its most salient features, according to Lenin, was the wavering of the petty- bourgeois elements, the author critically examines some other versions of bourgeois historiography distorting the sum and substance of this event,

B. A. KAMENETSKY. British Political Thought in the 16th and Early 17th Centuries as Reflected in Contemporary Anglo- American Historiography

The article brings out the connection between the interpretation given to the political conceptions current in Britain in the 16th-17th centuries by contemporary bourgeois authors and the ideas now expounded abroad by the apologists of capitalism. Whereas in the early works produced by representatives of Anglo-American historiography one could observe the tendency to emphasize the continuity and gradualness in the development of political thought in Britain, in the subsequent period bourgeois historians began to modernize the views of British humanists and to proclaim them champions of the constitutional system and even of democracy. In the recent period some of the bourgeois historians began to discern in their conceptions a substantiation of the special role played by the state as a supra-class arbitrator of social relationships. A number of works analyzing the sociopolitical views of British humanists underline their direct participation in the administration of state affairs, while bourgeois literature in general is at pains to depict them as a supra-class elite which allegedly expressed the interests of the people as a whole and constituted a decisive historical force.

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