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B. J. VAITKEVICIUS, J. J. KAHK, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R., V. A. STEINBERQ, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian S.S.R. The Development of Historical Science in the Baltic Soviet Republics

Written by directors of the Institutes of History of the Academies of Sciences of the Baltic Soviet Republics on the basis of their papers read at the plenary meeting of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences' Department of History in 1973, the article reviews the work of these scientific institutions. The authors show how the historians of the Baltic Soviet Republics carry on research in the topical problems of the history of socialist and communist construction, the socio-economic and political development of their region in the periods of feudalism and capitalism, and describe their accomplishments in the fields of historiography, source studies, auxiliary historical subjects, archeology, ethnography and art criticism.

M. L. ITKIN. The Activity of the Russian Factory Committee Centres in 1917

The author makes an attempt to highlight the multiform activity of territorial, industrial and production associations of the factory committees in 65 industrial districts of Russia in the period preceding the October Revolution of 1917, and to show the conspicuous role they played in mobilizing and rallying the working masses for the socialist revolution. The factual material contained in the article is illustrated by a generalized summary table embracing 94 factory committee centres, which provides information on the time of their establishment and on their activity under the guidance of the Party. These materials graphically show that the overwhelming majority of the factory committee centres during that period were converted into militant organs of the Bolshevik Party.

N. S. KINYAPINA. Central Asia and Its Place in the Foreign Policy Plans of the Tsarist Autocracy (1850's-1880's)

The article defines the place assigned to Central Asia in the tsarist autocracy's foreign policy plans and discloses the motives behind Russia's Central Asian policy. Much attention is devoted by the author to an analysis of relations between Russia and Britain, notably the attitude of Russia to Britain's expansion in the Middle East. The article examines the differences which arose among the ruling circles of Russia over the question concerning the methods of conducting the Central Asian policy, and traces the ideological and labour contacts maintained by the peoples of Central Asia with the working masses of Russia.

P. P. TOLOCHKO. Russia's Ethnic and State Development in the 12th-13th Centuries

Examining diverse aspects of the ethnic and state development of ancient Rus in the era of feudal disunity, the author, like many other Soviet historians and linguists, arrives at the conclusion that the single ancient Russian nationality continued to exist in the 12th-13th centuries along with the uniform ancient Russian language, territorial, cultural and religious community, certain common features of economic development and ethnic self- consciousness. Constituting a stable ethnic community, the ancient Russian nationality of the 12th-13th centuries also formed one of the basic elements of Russia's state unity up to the period of the Mongol-Tatar invasion.

стр. 221


M. A. ZABOROV. The International Working-Class Movement: Origin and Principal Stages of Development in the Contemporary Period.

The article examines the main principles and criteria applied to the periodization of the history of the international working-class movement in the contemporary period. Analyzing the various periodization schemes accepted in bourgeois and social-reformist historiography, the author shows that they are essentially based on the negation of general historical laws. That explains why researchers studiously avoid singling out any common boundaries dividing different stages in the history of the class struggle of the proletariat as a whole.

The author makes an attempt to formulate the distinctions between the "working-class movement" and "international working-class movement" concepts, defining the former as a movement embracing major events of the struggle waged by the factory proletariat, and the latter as a movement dating back to the period of the rise and development of the modern working class. The author draws the conclusion that the working-class movement became international in character already in the period from the latter half of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th centuries, although its development during that period was confined to the national boundaries. The working-class movement is international in its social essence. In conclusion the article analyzes the question concerning the correlation of the general landmarks of the international working-class movement and its boundaries in individual countries, as well as the connection of these landmarks with different stages of civil history.

Orphus

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