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Author(s) of the publication: Ф. К.

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GEYL, P. Johan de Witt. Grand Pensionary of Holland, 1653 - 1672. "History". Vol. XX, March 1936, p. 303 - 319.

ГЕЙЛЬ, П. Иоганн де Витт. Великий пенсионарий Голландии. 1653 - 1672.

В статье дан краткий очерк по печатным, преимущественно голландским, материалам некоторых моментов жизни и деятельности великого пенсионария Голландии Иоганна де Витта, фактически стоявшего в течение 20 лет во главе Голландской республики. Автор начинает свою статью с характеристики политической обстановки в момент смерти штатгальтера Вильгельма II Оранского (1650 г.). Несмотря на то что Оранская династия была, по мнению автора, довольно популярна среди кругов мелкой буржуазии по сравнению с надменной и державшей себя вызывающе по отношению к народу олигархической патрицианской группой, к которой принадлежал де Витт, последнему удалось в 1653 г овладеть властью и крепко ее держать в своих руках в продолжение почти двадцати лет. Де Витт проводил политику своего класса, не совпадавшую в тог момент с интересами Оранской династии, тесно связанной родственными узами с английской династией Стюартов. Автор рассказывает, как де Витт преждевременно заключил мир с Кромвелем, скрыв от Генеральных штатов принятое им обязательство - не призывать к власти представителя Оранского дома, и как ему удалось потушить возникшее вследствие этого недовольство в стране. Далее автор описывает участие Голландии в войнах начиная с 1666 года.

Первоначально де Витт во внешней политике опирался на Францию против Англии, которой в 1665 г. была объявлена война. В последней голландский флот сначала потерпел поражение, но благодаря удачной потом экспедиции к устью Темзы война окончилась выгодным для республики миром Позднее де Витт заключил тройственный союз (с Англией и Швецией) против Франции, что привело к вторжению войск Людовика XIV в пределы республики, причем голландской армии было нанесено сильное поражение. Это вызвало свержение де Витта, и Генеральными штатами Вильгельм III был назначен штатгальтером. Впрочем, его уже ранее де Витту пришлось допустить к командованию армией. На этом карьера де Витта окончилась: в 1672 г. он был сначала ранен, а затем убит толпой.

Автор характеризует де Витта как храброго, решительного и опытного политического вождя, но благодаря узко классовой политике непопулярного среди народных масс. Автор рецензируемой статьи считает, что, между прочим, этой непопулярностью были обусловлены беспорядки в 1662 г., после морского поражения Голландии. Де Витт был типичным представителем крупной торговой буржуазии, настроенной республикански, и проводил политику, исключительно преследуя интересы своего класса. Он, с одной стороны, стремился по возможности устранить от власти представителей Оранской династии, а с другой стороны, совершенно игнорировал интерны народных масс, "черни", которую он глубоко презирал. В неблагоприятных для Голландии международных условиях второй половины XVII в. его внешняя политика потерпела поражение и привела его самого к гибели.

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Ф. К., GEYL, P. JOHAN DE WITT. GRAND PENSIONARY OF HOLLAND, 1653-1672 // London: Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.COM). Updated: 04.12.2017. URL: http://libmonster.com/m/articles/view/GEYL-P-JOHAN-DE-WITT-GRAND-PENSIONARY-OF-HOLLAND-1653-1672 (date of access: 20.03.2019).

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GEYL, P. JOHAN DE WITT. GRAND PENSIONARY OF HOLLAND, 1653-1672
 

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