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M. A. AKHUNOVA, Corresponding Member, Uzbek Academy of Sciences. The Working Class of Uzbekistan Under Developed Socialism.

The article demonstrates the working class' decisive role in all spheres of the republic's life, major factors, sources and forms of its replenishment, the dynamics of its quantitative and qualitative growth, its greater labour and socio-political activeness under mature socialism in the struggle for stricter labour discipline, greater production efficiency and better quality based on the latest achievements of scientific and technical progress. The author comments on the greater number of women-workers, a significant phenomenon in Uzbekistan, and on the growing leading role of workers in strengthening the union between workers and peasants and in promoting modern forms of town's patronage to the countryside. The article places an especial emphasis on the internationalism of the republic's multinational working class.

A. A. GORSKY. The Prince's Guard and the Genesis of Feudalism in Old Rus.

The evolution of the prince's guard (druzhina) is treated in the article as connected with the overall process of feudal development in Rus. The author relates the emergence of the druzhina to the 6th-7th centuries. In the 9th-10th centuries it turned into a corporate landowner realising its ownership through gathering taxes (duties) among the personally free agricultural population. A considerable part of guardsmen became, in the 11th and 12th centuries, feud owners thus imparting a hierarchical character to the system of feudal landownership. On the whole, according to the author, the institute of druzhina was a leading class-forming factor in the genesis of feudalism in Rus, the druzhina itself being an organisation of the early mediaeval dominating class.

I. B. PONOMAREVA, N. A. SMIRNOVA. The Establishment of the American System of Bases During the Second World War.

The authors have set out to investigate the process of the formation of the system of bases in the key regions of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Pacific. They demonstrare that while the Soviet Union had thrown its material and human resources against fascist Germany, its war-time allies, the United States in the first place, used the entire range of military-economic and diplomatic means for establishing a ramified network of bases and building up its military potential for a future confrontation with the world of socialism. The American bases created at that time became a backbone of the global system of bases-a lynchpin of the present military-strategic infrastructure of US imperialism and the threat to world peace.

[V. I. SELIVANOV.] On the Sources of Militarism in Latin America .

It is a study of the genesis and the initial stages of Latin American imperialism which is marked by some specific features engendered by the Spanish conquest, further developed in the colonial period (early 16th-early 19th centuries) and in the first half of the 19th century when the colonies gained independence. The author provides characteristics of different aspects of the Spanish Crown's military policy in the colonies, such as an establishment of the regular army and erection of a system of defensive constructions, and gives his assessment of the 1764 - 1765 military reform which laid the foundation of a new colonial army with its principle of interaction between the regular army and militia. The article also touches upon the process of strengthening positions of the army and military institutions in the early republican period and on the social, economic and political sources of caudillismo.

I. D. KOVALCHENKO, Corresponding Member, USSR Academy of Sciences. The Use of Quantitative Methods and Computers in Historical Studies.

The author sums up the use of mathematics and computers in historical studies in this country, analyses its main trends, forms and methods, the correlation between the qualitative and quantitative analysis, and the conditions under which qualitative data

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can be correctly processed and analysed. He shows that independent historical studies by some mathematicians failed due to the lack of special historical knowledge and led to distortions, misinterpretations of historical sources and facts, misunderstanding of the essence of historical development, principles and methods of its cognition. In conclusion the author sets a number of tasks the solution of which will greatly promote the efficiency of the qualitative methods and computers used in historical studies.

CONTENTS

"Problems of History", N 9, 1984

Articles: M. A. Akhunova, Corresponding Member, Uzbek Academy of Sciences. The Working Class of Uzbekistan Under Developed Socialism; A. A. Gorsky. The Prince's Guard and the Genesis of Feudalism in Old Rus; I. B. Ponomareva, N. A. Smirnova. The Establishment of the American System of Bases During the Second World War; [ V. I. Selivanov . ] On the Sources of Militarism in Latin America; I. D. Kovalchenko, Corresponding Member, USSR Academy of Sciences. The Use of Quantitative Methods and Computers in Historical Studies. Historical Essays G. V. Aslafiev. Soviet Internationalist Aid to China (1917 - 1945); N. P. Efremova. New Facts on Ekaterina Barteneva; M. A. Zaborov. The Hospitallers. Historical Science in the USSR and Abroad. Surveys: Kh. A. Gakaev. The Battle of Caucasus in the Current Soviet Historical Literature. Book Reviews. Historiography of the History of the USSR. The Socialist Epoch: History of the USSR (19th-Early 20th Centuries) ; Siberian Peasantry in the Epoch of Feudalism; E. V. Anisimov. Peter the Great's Tax Reform. Introduction of the Per Capita Tax in Russia. 1719 - 1728; B. Dundulis. The Normans and Baltic Lands in the 9th-11th Centuries; L. I. Gintsberg. Friends of New Russia. Movement in Support of the Soviet Country in Weimar Germany; G. P. Kuropyatnik. Russia and the USA. Economic, Cultural and Diplomatic Tics. 1867 - 1881; O. V. Serova. From the Triple Alliance to An-lante Cordiale. Italian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy in Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries; A History of Unification of the Free German Trade Unions (Berlin); Italy and France Between 1919 and 1939 (Milan). International Ties of Soviet Historians. Scientific Notes Facts, Events, People. Articles in Soviet and Foreign Historical Journals. New Books in the USSR and Abroad.

SOMMAIRE

de la revue "Questions d'histoire" N 9, 1984

Articles: M. A. Akhounova, membre correspondant de I'Academie des sciences de la R.S.S. d'Ouzbekistan. La classe ouvriere d'Ouzbekistan dans la periode du socialisme developpe; A. A. Gorski. La droujina et la genese du feodalisme en Russie; I. B. Ponomareva, N. A. Smirnova. La mise en place du systerne americain de bases dans les annees de la Seconde Guerre mondiale; [ V. I. Selivanov. ] Des sources du militarisme en Amerique latine ; I. D. Kovaltchenko, membre correspondant de I'Academie des Sciences de l'U.R.S.S. L'emploi de methodes quantitatives et de calculatrices electroniques dans les recherches histonques. Apeгсus histоriques. G. V. Astafiev. L'aide internationaliste de l'U.R.S.S, a la Chine (1917 - 1945); N. P. Efremova. Nouvelles donnees sur Ekaterina Barteneva; M. A. Zaborov. Les hospitaliers. La science historique en U.R.S.S. et a l'etranger. Revues: Kh. A. Gakaev. Les publications historiqus sovietiques sur la bataille pour Ie Caucase. Comptes rendus des livres : L'historiographie de l'histoire de l'U.R.S.S. L'epoque du socialisme : Histoire de l'U.R.S.S. (XIXe - debut du XXe siecle); La paysannerie de la Siberie a l'epoque du feodalisme; E. V. Anissimov. La reforme de taille de Pierre Ie Grand. Introduction de la taille personnelle en Russie. 1719 - 1728; B. Doundoulis. Les Normands et les terres de la Baltique aux IXe-XIe siecles; L. I. Guintsberg. Les amis de la nouvelle Russie. Le mouvement en faveur du

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pays des Soviets en Allemagne de Weimar; G. P. Kouropiatnik. La Russie et les Etats-Unis. Les liens economiques, culturels et diplomatiques. 1867 - 1881 ; O. V. Serova. De la Triple-Alliance a l'Entente. La politique exterieure et la diplomatie de I'ltalie a la fin du XIXe - debut du XXe siecle; L'histoire de la reunion des syndicats alien-lands libres (Berlin); L'ltalie et la France de 1919 a 1939 (Milan). Les liens internationaux des historienssovietiques. Notes scientifiques. Faits. Evenements. Hommes. Articles dans les revues historiques sovietiques et etrangeres. Nouveaux livres en U.R.S.S. et a l'etranger.

SUMARIO

de la revista "Cuestiones de historia" N 9, 1984

Articulos: M. A. Ajunova, miembro correspondiente de la AC de la RSS de Uzbekia. La clase obrera de Uzbekistan en el periodo del socialismo desarrollado; A. A. Gorski. La druzhina y la genesis del feudalismo en Rus; I. B. Ponomariova, N. A. Smirnova.Formacion del sistema norteamericano de bases en los anos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial;. [ V. I. Selivanov. ] Sobre los origenes del militarismo en America Latina; I. D. Kovalchenko, miembro correspondiente de la AC de la URSS. Empleo de los metodos cuantitativos y las computadoras electronicas en investigaciones historicas. Ensауоs historicos. G. V. Astafiev. La ayuda internacionalista de la URSS a China (1917 - 1945); N. P. Efremova. Nuevos datos sobre Ekaterina Barteniova; M. A. Zaborov. Los hospitalarios. Сienсia historic a en la URSS у en el exterior. Resumenes: J. A. Gakaev. La batalla por el Caucaso en las publicaciones historicas sovieticas contemporaneas. Resenas. Historiografia de la historia de la URSS. Epoca del socialismo: Historia de la URSS (siglo XIX y comienzos del XX); El campesinado de Siberia en la epoca del feudalismo; E. V. Anisimov. Reforma tributaria de Pedro I. Establecimiento de la capitacion en Rusia. 1719 - 1728; B. Dundulis. Los normandos y las tierras del Baltico en los siglos IX-XI; L. I. Guintsberg. Amigos de la nueva Rusia. Movimiento en defensa del pais sovietico en Alemania de Weimar; G. P. Kuropiatnik. Rusia у EE.UU. Relaciones economicas, culturales y diplomaticas. 1867 - 1881; O. V. Serova. De la Triple Alianza a la Entente. Politica exterior у diplomacia italianas a fines del sigin XIX y a comienzos del XX; Historia de la unificacion de los sindicatos libros alemanes (Berlin); Italia y Francia des de 1919 hasta 1939 (Milano). Relaciones internacionales de los historiadores sovietlcos. Notas cientificas. Hechos, sucesos, hombres. Articulos en revistas historicas sovieticas y extranjeras. Nuevos libros en la URSS y en el exterior.

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